Monday, September 30, 2019

The term ‘Phlebotomy’ Essay

‘Phlebotomy’ comes from the Greek word phlebos, meaning veins, and tome, meaning incision. Bloodletting is one of the humanity’s oldest medical practices, dating back thousands of years and is linked to many ancient cultures, including the Mayans, Aztecs, Egyptians and Mesopotamians. Evidence suggests bloodletting for therapeutic reasons may have begun in Egypt around 1400B.C. Tomb paintings from this time show the application of a leech to a patient. The purpose was to cure a person suffering from some kind of infirmity (leprosy, plague, pneumonia, stroke, and inflammation, pretty much anything). The patient was pierced or cut and then drained of several ounces of blood until they fainted. In ancient Greek culture, a physician named Galen of Pergamon took the practice in a more scientific direction when he discovered that arteries were filled with blood, not air. Galen’s approach to bloodletting was based on two key concepts. First, Galen believed that blood didn’t circulate, but stayed motionless in the body until it either went stagnant or was let out. Secondly, he thought the balance of the four humors (blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile) was the source of health or illness. Mapping out the blood vessels of the body, Galen would cut his patients in different areas, depending on what area he wanted to treat. For example, the right hand would be cut and drained in order to treat liver problems. He was also known to give his patients drugs in order to induce vomiting or urination. Bloodletting was also prominent in the early days of some of the world’s most practiced religions. The Talmud (a central text of Judaism) included rules for days where bloodletting could be practiced. Early Christian writings outlined which saint’s days were the best for the ritual. Bloodletting is also referenced as a treatment for fevers in some early Islamic texts. Continuing into the middle ages both surgeons and barbers were specializing in this bloody practice. Barber poles which still decorate the outsides of barber shops are a leftover tradition dating back to the days of barber bloodletting. The swirling red line on the pole represents the blood itself, the white represents the tourniquet, and the pole itself represents the stick the patient would squeeze in his/her hand in order to dilate the veins. Bloodletting as a medical procedure migrated to the Americas along with the European colonists, stretching in time from the residents of Plymouth to the Founding Fathers. Physician Benjamin Rush  (one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence) recommended bloodletting to his patients on a consistent basis. As a matter of fact, George Washington, the first U.S. president, died in 1799 from a throat infection after having 3.75 liters (9 pints) of blood removed from his body within a 10 hour period as treatment for a throat infection. The draining of 16-30 ounces (1-4 pints) of blood was typical. Blood was often caught in a shallow bowl. When the patient became faint, the â€Å"treatment† was stopped. Bleeding was often encouraged over large areas of the body by multiple incisions. By the end of the 19th century (1875-1900), Phlebotomy was declared quackery. The main process of bloodletting in 19th century medicine included the use of leeches to drain blood from a patient. During the 1830s, France imported approximately 40 million leeches for the purpose of bloodletting. Francois-Joseph-Victor Broussais, a French physician, would reportedly recommend his patients be treated with as many as 50 leeches at a time. Bloodletting, also known as venesection, managed to survive into the first part of the 20th century; it was even recommended in a 1923 edition of a textbook called The Principles and Practice of Medicine. During those days, there were four main bloodletting methods practiced by physicians. The first was the continued use of leeches as a bloodletting source. The second was called arteriotomy, a process in which the arteries in the temples would be punctured and bled. The third was phlebotomy (also known as â€Å"breathing a vein†) where a large external vein would be cut in order to draw blood. The last was scarification – a particularly stomach-turning method which involved one of a varied set of tools made for the purpose of attacking â€Å"superficial† blood vessels. Such devices included spring-loaded lancets and a circular, mutli-bladed, device known as a scarificator. The scarificator had a series of twelve blades. The device was cocked and the trigger released spring-driven rotary blades that caused many shallow cuts. The scarificator seemed more merciful than other bloodletting instruments. The reason bloodletting died comes as no surprise to modern readers that bloodletting killed far more people than it cured. Still, it wasn’t until the 19th century that members of the medical community seriously questioned  the merits of this practice. In the 1830s, Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis convincingly argued against the perceived effectiveness of phlebotomy for the treatment of pneumonia and fever. Ironically, with the gradual decline of bloodletting there was an increase of other dangerous and ineffective treatments, such as the use of electricity, elixirs and potions. These medications gained popularity for the same reason that bloodletting had in earlier times: it sometimes worked as a placebo. Because the patients believed that receiving electric shock therapy would heal their illness, the psychological factor may have been enough to actually make them feel better. As the 20th century brought a myriad of new medical knowledge, technology and medicine, however, these archaic practices (including bloodletting) died out almost entirely within a few decades. With the advent of modern medicine, bloodletting was remembered as a historical fad, similar to the guillotine as a form of death penalty. After nearly a century of new medical knowledge and leaps of progress that include the development of electron microscopes, mapping the human genome and cloning living tissue, how is it possible that the medical field is reconsidering the use of this ancient practice? The answer is fairly straightforward: Where ancient bloodletting was used to treat and prevent almost every infirmity imaginable, modern bloodletting (or phlebotomy) is used only to treat specific medical conditions of which medical research has proven the benefits. Research has shown that bloodletting could improve cholesterol, blood pressure and blood glucose levels for people suffering from metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a term used to describe the list of medical problems facing people who are obese, such as hypertension, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. People with this condition are at risk for clots and strokes. Bloodletting thins down the patient’s blood, helping to prevent these problems. Perhaps the most common use for modern bloodletting is a hereditary iron-overload condition known as hemochromatosis. As iron builds in the patient’s blood, it can have a negative impact on various areas of the body, including the heart and the joints. This can eventually lead to disease and organ failure. Bloodletting, now commonly referred to as a â€Å"blood donation†, is applied as the main treatment for hemochromatosis, with patients having their blood taken on at  least an annual basis for life. There is another modern form of bloodletting worth noting, if nothing else, because it never actually went away in the first place. Leeches have continued to be used for certain medical treatments throughout the 20th century right up to the present day. Whereas leeches were formerly used to treat all sorts of injuries and sicknesses, today they are mostly used by doctors in the reattaching of severed body parts such as fingers and toes. Attaching leeches is effective because they can help to get rid of any extra blood that might start problematically flooding in the tissue. Phlebotomy plays a major role in preventive healthcare, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Although the instruments and methods used for obtaining blood in the beginning may appear crude in comparison to the instruments and methods we use today, the concept remains the same. The exception being, instead of using bloodletting as a â€Å"cure† to remove the illness we use it as a way to analyze, diagnose and treat the illness. Without phlebotomy the process of accurately diagnosing diseases and infections would be impossible.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Ancient Egyptian Art & Architecture Essay

Due to the scarcity of wood the two predominant building materials used in ancient Egypt were sun-baked mud bricks and stone, mainly limestone but also sandstone and granite in considerable quantities. From the Old Kingdom onward, stone was generally reserved for tombs and temples, while bricks were used even for royal palaces, fortresses, the walls of temple precincts and towns, and for subsidiary buildings in temple complexes. The core of the pyramids came from stone quarried in the area already while the limestone, now eroded away, that was used to face the pyramids came from the other side of the Nile River and had to be quarried, ferried across, and cut during the dry season before they could be pulled into place on the pyramid. Ancient Egyptian houses were made out of mud collected from the Nile river. It was placed in molds and left to dry in the hot sun to harden for use in construction. Many Egyptian towns have disappeared because they were situated near the cultivated area of the Nile Valley and were flooded as the river bed slowly rose during the millennia, or the mud bricks of which they were built were used by peasants as fertilizer. Others are inaccessible (unapproachable), new buildings having been erected on ancient ones. Fortunately, the dry, hot climate of Egypt preserved some mud brick structures. Examples include the village Deir al-Madinah, the Middle Kingdom town at Kahun, and the fortresses at Buhen and Mirgissa. Also, many temples and tombs have survived because they were built on high ground unaffected by the Nile flood and were constructed of stone. Thus, our understanding of ancient Egyptian architecture is based mainly on religious monuments, massive structures characterized by thick, sloping walls with few openings, possibly echoing a method of construction used to obtain stability in mud walls. In a similar manner, the incised and flatly modeled surface adornment (decoration) of the stone buildings may have derived from mud wall ornamentation. Although the use of the arch was developed during the fourth dynasty, all monumental buildings are post and lintel constructions, with flat roofs constructed of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and the closely spaced columns. Exterior and interior walls, as well as the columns and piers (landing place) were covered with hieroglyphic and pictorial (symbolic) frescoes and carvings painted in brilliant colors. Many motifs (design) of Egyptian ornamentation are symbolic, such as the scarab or sacred beetle, the solar disk and the vulture. Other common motifs include palm leaves, the papyrus plant, and the buds and flowers of the lotus. Hieroglyphs were inscribed for decorative purposes as well as to record historic events or spells. In addition, these pictorial frescoes and carvings allow us to understand how the Ancient Egyptians lived, statuses, wars that were fought and their beliefs. This was especially true when exploring the tombs of Ancient Egyptian officials in recent years. Ancient Egyptian temples were aligned with astronomically significant events, such as solstices and equinoxes, requiring precise (accurate) measurements at the moment of the particular event. Measurements at the most significant temples may have been ceremonially undertaken by the Pharaoh himself. Art Forms: Ancient Egyptian art forms are characterized by regularity and detailed depiction of gods, human beings, heroic battles, and nature, and were intended to provide solace to the deceased in the afterlife. Egyptian art in all forms obeyed one law: the mode of representing Pharaohs, gods, man, nature and the environment. Ancient Egyptian art displays an extraordinarily vivid representation of the Ancient Egyptian’s socioeconomic status and belief systems. Architecture: Ancient Egyptian architects used sun-dried and kiln-baked bricks, fine sandstone, limestone and granite. Hieroglyphic and pictorial carvings in brilliant colors were abundantly used to decorate Egyptian structures. Papyrus: Papyrus is a plant. Papyrus was used by ancient Egyptians for writing and painting. Papyrus texts illustrate all dimensions of ancient Egyptian life and include literary, religious, historical and administrative documents. Pottery: Ancient Egyptians used steatite (some varieties were called soapstone). Different types of pottery items were deposited in tombs of the dead. Some such pottery items represented interior parts of the body, like the lungs, the liver and smaller intestines, which were removed before embalming (the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains). Sculpture: The ancient art of Egyptian sculpture evolved to represent the ancient Egyptian gods, Pharaohs, and the kings and queens, in physical form. Very strict conventions were followed while crafting statues: male statues were darker than the female ones; in seated statues, hands were required to be placed on knees and specific rules governed appearance of every Egyptian god. Egyptian Art Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley from 5000 BC to 300 AD. Ancient Egyptian art reached a high level in painting and sculpture, and was both highly stylized and symbolic. Much of the surviving art comes from tombs and monuments and thus there is an emphasis on life after death and the preservation of knowledge of the past. The quality of observation and execution started at a high level and remained near that level throughout the 2nd and 3rd dynasty. Paintings: Egyptian painting is said to be one of the most unique and mysterious attributes of Egypt. Egyptian painting is not oil-based or fresco-based, it is tempura-based. All Egyptian reliefs were painted on a flat surface. Pigments were mostly mineral, chosen to withstand strong sunlight without fading. The binding medium used in painting remains unclear. After painting, a varnish or resin was usually applied as a protective coating. The paintings were often made with the intent of making a pleasant afterlife for the deceased. Some tomb paintings show activities that the deceased were involved in when they were alive and wished to carry on doing for eternity. Egyptian paintings are painted in such a way to show a profile view and a side view of the animal or person. Periods in Art: The Ancient Egyptian art style is known as Amarna art. It was characterized by a sense of movement and activity in images. Also, the human body is portrayed differently in Amarna style artwork than Egyptian art on the whole. Faces are still shown exclusively in profile.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Business plan for chinese restaurant Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Business plan for chinese restaurant - Essay Example The owners wanted to provide the market, students from the University and nearby places, with an option for a quick-service restaurant that offers quality food at an affordable price. As an added novelty, the owners will add a twist to the product line by fusing oriental Chinese cuisine with western food to give customers something to rave about and come back for. The main vehicle for its Marketing is online advertising, utilizing the internet as a main tool in engaging the potential customers and enticing them into sampling the products. Social media and search engine optimization tools shall be utilized to enable the company to have a wider reach and focused marketing. II. Market Opportunity/ Problem Definition 1. Customer Value Proposition Mr. Choi’s Kitchen will appeal to customers who are always on the go because the business will adapt a fast food concept and pacing. Clients will spend little time to wait for their ordered food. This set up is best for busy students, you ng professionals and young married couples who have the buying capacity and would want to enjoy classic Chinese food without the frills and fuss offered by the usual Chinese restaurants. Owners have already made initial implementation plans targeting university students. The initial plan was to bring the Chinese restaurant set up to the universities, which is our target market. This restaurant shall be complete with sit down and dine in amenities. Mr. Choi’s Kitchen targets the young crowd with its East meets west and fast food concept. These are people who are always on the go, and would most likely appreciate food being served fast. In this case, they can choose their dishes from among the wide array of food products to be served ala-carte. 2. Customer Landscape Our target market is college students who need a quick and healthy lunch or dinner during their busy school time and interested in Asian food. In the year of 2012, there are 39,236 students and 12,053 employees in t he University of Arizona. This is our primary target market. They are a busy group of people who would prefer the service of a fast food chain. They are constrained by time due to school work, and are highly mobile. They also have a penchant for quick service. This figure does not include other potential customers such as employees working in companies around University of Arizona or downtown of Tucson. The number of residents around the campus within one mile radius is about 20,000. 3. Industry Dynamics There are over 600,000 restaurants and food shops in the United States. Gross annual receipts total more than $ 172 billion dollars per year (National Restaurant Association 2012). It is one of the country’s largest grossing industries. The food industry also employs over ten million people, and generates an annual payroll of more than $ 34 Billion per year. In the article â€Å"How and Where America Eats†, more than 40% of American families eat out at least one night per week. Americans, on the whole, have also become much busier. More and more families now have two incomes and as such, the tradition of staying at home and cooking meals is vanishing. Among these establishments, a significant part offer Chinese cuisine as their food genre. 4. Competitive Landscape Our main competitors include Panda Express in the Student Union, Jimmy Johns on Park Ave., Chipotle Mexican Grill on University Blvd, and Bagel Talk in Park Student Union. They either have the similar business model or

Friday, September 27, 2019

Communication in the Workplace Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Communication in the Workplace - Essay Example aces in recent times, are highly characterized by low employee morale, poor performance, and rise in conflicts arising out of miscommunication across various levels of the organizational hierarchy (Manning et al., 1999). Effective workplace communication is inevitable for organizations, regardless of their size. This includes giant multinational organizations which are successful and enjoy a strong competitive positioning in the industry. This is because, success leads to hiring of more people, expansion of business, establishment of organizations in various international locations etc. This adds to the existing complexities in communication. In the absence of effective communication, important tasks are left unattended and incomplete; valuable information cannot be communicated properly; and generation of novel and unique business ideas comes to a complete standstill. Furthermore, the absence of proper and well established modes of communication creates dissent and disharmony among the workers, affecting their productivity in the process. Improved communication leads to an improvement in performance, while flawed and inadequate communication leads to conflicts and misunderstandings at the workplace (Guffey, Loewy, 2009). This makes communication – whether horizontal, vertical or diagonal, extremely vital for organizational success. Fear – the employees might hold back from communicating vital information to their superiors for fear of punishments or fines. They may fear negative consequences of their actions, and hence withhold information, from their superiors. In order to avoid such occurrences, the management must take active measures to ensure that all employees across all levels of organizational hierarchy are encouraged to share and communicate any sort of information to their superiors. They must also be given an opportunity to share and resolve their grievances. Such open channels of communication, if provided to the employees, may play a vital

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Discuss the claim that some areas of knowledge are discovered and Essay

Discuss the claim that some areas of knowledge are discovered and others are invented - Essay Example Discoveries have led to the development of the various disciplines in the educational systems today. Facts have been unleashed for every one to observe and use the knowledge to be efficient in the day to day operations (Maddox 1998 p 71). Both the knowledge acquired through invention and that acquired through discovery are significant for the advancement and sustainability of humans. This essay is a critique of the two kinds of knowledge. It presents the distinction as well as the relationships that exist between discovered and invented knowledge. The discovered knowledge helps people to predict the outcome of their actions. For example, the law of gravity that was discovered by Sir Isaac Newton helps people to understand why things always fall after being tossed away from the earth (Berlinski 2002 p 76). Such kind of discovered knowledge is amongst the fundamentals of a course such as physics. Other people who have discovered important knowledge include scientists Boyle and Charles who contributed to the discovery of gas laws and Michael Faraday who made several discoveries in physics amongst others (Donald 2005 p 57). In essence, these people did not change anything on what they discovered. What they did is just realizing how things work. On the other hand, inventions are usually accomplished after studying and understanding how things work. It leads to the development of theories that help people to work better. Many inventions can be combined to develop a complex unit, which is the basis for industrialization, medicine and other professions. For example, inventions of the alternating current theories by Steinmetz led to the development of electrical power generation; the law of electromagnetic induction invented by Michael Faraday was useful in developing the coils used in transformers and coils; invention of the integrated circuit by Jack Kilby was useful in development of electronic equipments that use electricity, and many other theories that

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Literature Review- Gerontology; Benefits of Physical Activity in Older Essay

Literature Review- Gerontology; Benefits of Physical Activity in Older Age - Essay Example Mees (2003) reported that in the United States â€Å"each year, musculoskeletal conditions and injuries account for about 102.3 million visits to physician offices, 10.2 million hospital outpatient visits, 25 million emergency department visits, 3 million hospitalizations, and 7.5 million procedures, and they cost an estimated $300 billion†. She goes to report that â€Å" people in their 50s notice more aches and pains after performing the same activities that were painless in their 40s, and those in their 60s cant do as much as they did in their 50s†. Because the ageing process is multidirectional and multidimensional, in examining the effect of physical activity on the process we must examine the many aspects of health that are affected as one gets older, the different types of physical activity that can be beneficial, and how can elderly people be more motivated to engage in physical activity to help them in the ageing process. Even if there is no disease present there are so many other effects on the body of ageing. Coronary artery disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and cognitive disorders are some of the disorders that become more prevalent as people age. Brennan (2002) describes some of the normal physiological changes that occur in the body during ageing as â€Å"changes in the cardiovascular system include decreased elasticity in blood vessel walls, increases in blood pressure, and myocardial hypertrophy resulting in decreased end-diastolic filling and cardiac output; pulmonary effects include loss of tissue elasticity as well as a gradual decline in the number of alveolar sacs†. In addition he says that â€Å"as humans age, they experience neuronal cell loss, decreases in reaction time, decreases in overall balance, and decreases in nerve conduction velocities. Aging decreases estrogen, androgen, and growth hormone levels. Rates of depression increase with

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Hotel and Hospitality industry Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Hotel and Hospitality industry - Assignment Example It is part of an International hotel group called Saint Emilton Hotel Group (SEHG). Since the hotel is having 40 hotels in its portfolio in Europe and Far East, therefore it can be safely assumed that the group is experienced enough in the business. It is being felt that hotel facilities are not being used to its fullest potential, therefore the General Manager, Robert Herr as asked Kati Mertens, the Front Office Manager to examine and prioritise the pricing strategy. Some of the key issues that Kati needs to look into, are; b. Tourist visitors too fall in two categories. One from an affluent class, for whom price is no consideration, and he is on the lookout for comfort and pleasure. On the other hand less affluent and middle income group customers always desire reasonable pricing for a decent comfort. This sort of data can be gathered from feedback forms (for return customers) and by judging them through correspondence or at the front office. Accordingly differential pricing strategy can be prepared depending upon their economic background. The visitor who's here on a tourism spree has the requirements for sight-seeing etc. Therefore, it is equally important the Hotel has a tie up with some tour operators for such sight-seeing tours etc. must be c. c. The business visitor on the hand requires a host of facilities like, meeting rooms, conference facilities, Fax, Wi-Fi,

Monday, September 23, 2019

Albania's Pyramid Schemes Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Albania's Pyramid Schemes - Case Study Example The private sector contributed about two third of the GDP, and the rising remittances from the Albanians working Greece and Italy increase the disposable incomes. The improved economic environment increased consumer imports, and investments in the emerging pyramid schemes. Lack of proper financial institution and securities markets encouraged the Albanians to look for alternative investment opportunities such as the pyramid schemes. This paper examines the effects of the pyramid scheme on the local economy. 2. Background As suggested by Dirk pyramid schemes operate on a simple principle whereby, money paid by the later investors is used pay artificially high returns to earlier investors (78). At first, early investors are promised high returns to woo potential investors. As the word spreads, many people are pulled into the scheme to benefit from the huge capital gains. As Jarvis observes during the early phases, the whole process seems to work, but with time the interest and principa l owed to the old investors exceed the money that the scheme has (5). As a result, investors are forced to cut short the payments and investors start panicking. Some of the players that were involved in the pyramid scheme include VEFA which was formed in 1992 by Vehbi Alimuca, and took in at least $700 million in deposits. The institution started as a trading company and is accused of promising customers unsupportable rates. The second major player is Xhafferi which was formed by Rrapush Xhafferi and at the time of its collapse it had taken $250 in deposits. Another key player in the pyramid scheme was Gjallica which was formed in 1991 and took in an estimated $850 million in deposits. Sude on the other hand, offered lottery services but thereafter started taking deposits from the customers. At the time of its collapse, the company had $90 million in liabilities and no assets. Just like Sude, Populli offered to pay its customers two times principal invested after 3 months. The compa ny worked closely with the Albanian opposition parties, and at the time of its collapse its liabilities were over $150 million. 3. Events leading to the crisis As Chris Jarvis, an IMF economist observes in the article titled, the rise and the fall of pyramid schemes Albania, the origin of the pyramid schemes can be traced to the decline of the smuggling market. According to Jarvis the smuggling of oil products through Albania ended with the suspension of the UN sanctions against Yugoslavia (10). As a result, the pyramid period schemes were forced to look for alternatives sources of income. One of the viable ways at the time was to increase the interests so as to attract capital from potential investors. Within a short time the deposit-taking market grew tremendously, and by the mid-1996, the deposit-taking companies were offering interest rates as high as 19%. In the first few months, the companies had attracted two million depositors, and the number continued to grow in the second half of 1996. The players in the informal sector competed by offering attractive rates and just to illustrate, in the September 1996 Populli offered a monthly interest are of 30% which Xhafferi countered with a 44% rate while Sude offered to double the principal in two months. To capitalize on these opportunities some of the investors sold their property while other sold their animals, and then put the proceeds in the pyramid schemes. Worried about the integrity of the schemes, the Governor of Bank of Albania issued the first warning, and then followed by the Minister of Finance. The government formed a committee to investigate the schemes but

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Gambling on Our Future Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Gambling on Our Future - Essay Example The increased revenue motivated other states to adopt gambling. The acceptance was possible through implementation of laws that allow gambling. The increased activities are observed in the impoverished areas as people struggle to overcome poverty. Moreover, gambling is shown to have spread to other areas. Such areas include groceries, convenience stores, and gas stations in the form of lotteries. Traditionally, gambling was concentrated in casinos. There has always been the rise of online gambling with the rise of the internet. The effect has been shown to be a change of nations view on gambling. The change has occurred through increased acceptance of state lotteries and internet. Hence, many states have adopted gambling as a way of increasing revenue. Moreover, the percentage of those that participate in gambling is shown to be on the rise. The habit has been shown to have an adverse effect on people. The effect is seen through the rise of habitual gamblers. For example, the habit makes an individual fail to manage time and money. The ultimate effect is shown as being bankrupt, loss of job, alcoholism, drug addiction, and welfare. The effects are shown to be costly to the states and people

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Compare the portrayal of Clytaemnestra in both Aeschylus Essay Example for Free

Compare the portrayal of Clytaemnestra in both Aeschylus Essay Compare the portrayal of Clytaemnestra in both Aeschylus Agamemnon and Euripides Electra. Which portrayal do you think is more effective and why?  The character of Clytaemnestra is portrayed very differently in both Aeschylus Agamemnon and Euripides Electra. In Agamemnon, we see a very strong female ruler, who is completely absorbed by her passion for vengeance, whereas the figure in Electra is far more maternal, and shows a concern for her family and reputation, which was not apparent in Aeschylus play. This subdued version of Clytaemnestra shows a stark contrast to the fierce and dominant character in Agamemnon, however both characters remain fascinating for different reasons. The Clytaemnestra of Agamemnon seems to be fearless of retribution, with an infallible belief in her own righteousness; I have no fear that his avengers tread shall shake this house. In Electra, however, we see a very different character, humbled over the years, and afraid of Orestes, Im terrifiedthey say he is full of anger for his fathers death. These different reactions to the same topic emphasise how greatly the character of Clytaemnestra differs in each play, from the meek and subdued housewife of Electra, to the self-assured and confident murderess of Agamemnon. One explanation for the changes in character of Clytaemnestra in these plays is the timescale in which they are set. The events in Electra happen several years after those in Agamemnon, and the more mature and calmer Clytaemnestra we see portrayed in Euripides play could be due to the effect of time on her, and the fact that she has had several years in which to reflect upon her actions and realise the full extent of the crimes that she committed against her husband. In Electra, Clytaemnestra states how bitterly I regret it now with regards to the murder she has committed, showing that she has indeed been thinking about the events of the past and repents her actions. This Clytaemnestra is very subdued in comparison to the character portrayed by Aeschylus, and although we can see some evidence of the passion and raw energy that made the character so fascinating in Agamemnon, for instance when she attempts to justify her murder of Agamemnon to her daughter; why should he not die? it is clear in Electra that Clytaemnestra is to take second stage to her daughter in regards to unhindered fury and a lust for vengeance. This older, wiser Clytaemnestra still remains crucial to the plot, but not as a central character, and is merely a shadow of her former self, the confident, powerful creature who dictated the action of Aeschylus play. The style of the two playwrights is a notable difference in the two plays, and the representation of Clytaemnestra varies greatly due to this. Euripides, the more modern o the two tragedists, tended to use sophistic arguments to confound the audiences expectations of a character. With Clytaemnestra, for instance, he decided to move away from her monstrous image the audience would have expected after plays such as Agamemnon, and instead portrayed her as a gentler, maternal figure. This technique was enhanced by the fact that we do not see Clytaemnestra until the second half of the play; only hear about her from Electra. The image portrayed by this character is similar to the one portrayed in Agamemnon, so much so as the audience can wonder whether Euripides is intentionally parodying this version of events, as he had done earlier in the play with the recognition scene, a clear parody of The Libation Bearers. Aeschylus, a far more traditional playwright, portrays Clytaemnestra in her c lassic style, as the murderess of her own husband. This portrayal is, however, somewhat sympathetic towards Clytaemnestra, and we can feel some compassion towards her, although this does not excuse her actions. Aeschylus gave the audience a clear moral standpoint in his tragedies, and they are aware through both the use of the chorus, and the play itself, whose side to be on, from a moral perspective. Euripides on the other hand, tended to be deliberately ambiguous, and his treatment of Clytaemnestra is typical of this. The two sides of the woman that are exposed in this play; the ruthless killer of Agamemnon, as seen through the eyes of Electra, and the reformed wife of Aegisthus, as is later portrayed. This use of sophistic techniques in order to confound the audiences expectations is common in the plays of Euripides, and is particularly effective in this portrayal of such a fascinating woman. The fact that Clytaemnestra is the central character in Agamemnon yet only plays a small part in Euripides Electra also accounts for several differences in her character. The Clytaemnestra in Agamemnon appears almost constantly throughout the play, and through this we can see the development of her character from the strong wife looking after her husbands estate whilst he is at war: Our king and leader absentour duty pays his due observance to his wife, to the violent mistress who murders her husband without remorse at the end of the play: caught by the ruthless falsehood of a wife. Aeschylus is able to develop his character over a far greater stretch of time than Euripides as, in Electra, Clytaemnestra only appears in one scene. The fact that Clytaemnestra is the main protagonist in Agamemnon allows us to examine her character to a far greater extent, enabling us to see how obsessed she has become with the idea of vengeance, and the murder of her husband: His death the work of my right hand, whose craftsmanship Justice acknowledges. In Electra, the character of Clytaemnestra is not given as much time to develop, and we have to make assumptions on her based on the short dialogue between her and Electra.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Literature Review on Preconception Counseling and Education

Literature Review on Preconception Counseling and Education Review of literature is an essential step in the development of a research project. It helps the researcher to design the proposed study in a scientific manner. So as to achieved the desired result. In this chapter the researcher will present the review of literature in the following heading. Section-I: Studies related to Importance of preconception counseling and health education. Section-II: Studies related to Knowledge and attitude regarding preconception care. Section-III: Studies related to Use of vitamin supplements prior to pregnancy. Section-IV: Studies related to Health awareness and promotion on preconception care Section-V: Studies related to Betty Neumanns system model SECTION-I: STUDIES RELATED TO PRECONCEPTION COUNSELLING AND HEALTH EDUCATION Bastani, Hashemi, Bastani, Haghani., (2010) conducted a study, among the women attending premarital clinics in Iran which was aimed to assess the impact of a health education workshop on their health locus of control and self-efficacy in physical activity. Randomized controlled trial was used as the design for the study. A questionnaire was used before and after the intervention. There were significant increases in scores of internal health locus of control and self-efficacy in the experimental group that is among the 109 samples in the post-intervention. Compared to the control group that is among 101 samples. Short-term health education can empower the women to adapt to the healthy lifestyles. Berghella,Buchanan, Pereira, Baxter., (2010) conducted study on the available literature, on preconception care. They have searched in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and PUBMED from 1966 until January 2009. The target audience was Obstetricians Gynecologists, Family Physicians and adolescence. When they completed the educational programme, the participant was having knowledge to assess the potential benefits for women and their baby that which results from the preconception care. Jong-Potjer LC de, Elsinga,, (2006) conducted a study on Preconception counselling can reduce negative pregnancy problems by finding the risk factors before pregnancy in Netherlands. Randomized trial of women aged 18-40years were used as sample in the study. The anxiety level was assessed among the women. After the Preconception care there was found an average decrease of 3.6 points in anxiety-levels (95% CI, 2.4 4.8). Mean scores of the STAI-3 were 38.5 (95% CI 37.7 39.3) in the control group (n = 1090) and 38.7 (95% CI 37.9 39.5) in the intervention group (n = 1186). Study proved that anxiety reduced after participation due to the effect of counselling. Therefore the offer of Preconception counselling to the general population is effective to reduce anxiety. SECTION-II: STUDIES RELATED TO KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE REGARDING THE PRECONCEPTION CARE Coonrod, Bruce, Malcolm, Drachman, Frey., (2009) conducted a study to find out the knowledge and attitudes regarding preconception care in a low-income Mexican American population. A cross-sectional survey was used and the sample size was 305. 89% agreed that improving preconception health benefits pregnancy. 77% expressed some interest in preconception health care. Areas of high knowledge included were the folic acid use in pregnancy; use of alcohol; and verbal, physical, and sexual abuse. The samples showed interest in the preconception education and agreed that preconception health will have positive effect on pregnancy outcomes. Maria , Morgan Debra Hawks,, (2006) conducted a study to describe obstetrician-gynecologists opinions regarding preconception care. The Questionnaire was mailed to 1105 ACOG members. 60% was the response rate. 87% of the gynecologists think that preconception counselling is important and 94% think that it should be always recommend to the women planning for pregnancy. Around 34% thought their patients do not plan for their pregnancies and 49% said very few pregnant patients came for preconception counselling. Of those who obtain preconception counselling, 83% were believed to assure a healthy pregnancy because of an elevated risk for birth defects (20%). Janis Biermann, Anne Lang Dunlop,, (2006) conducted two program focusing the urban African-American women which has included the interconception care also. Project was aimed to reduce the key risks in the women of childbearing age. 7 out of 21 women in the IPC were identified as having a previous chronic disease. 21 out of 21 women have developed a reproductive plan for themselves, and they didnt become pregnant within 9 months. The success rate of the project was greater than 70% among the participants. Preconception care appeared to be effective when specific risk factors were identified and interventions were given appropriately. SECTION-III: STUDIES RELATED TO USE OF VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS PRIOR TO THE PREGNANCY Carl J, Hill, DA., (2009) did a study that womens diet should be supplemented with 400 mcg folic acid every day which helps in reducing neural tube defects in their babies up to 72%. Blood glucose should be controlled prior to conception helps in reducing the birth defects and pregnancy loss. Reducing the caffeine consumption can reduce the risk of miscarriage. Counselling was given for women in these areas and found to be effective. Morgan LM, Major JL, Meyer RE, Mullenix A., (2009) proved that use of 400 mcg of folic acid among non-pregnant females of childbearing age in the Western North Carolina reduced the risk of neural tube defects by 50%-80. To the non-pregnant women free bottle of multivitamins was given to increase the consumption. The daily use multivitamin was increased after receiving a free three month supply. Weerd de, Sabina Thomas, Chris, Cikot, Rolf, Steegers, Eric., (2002) conducted a study to assess whether counselling the women who plans for pregnancy to start or to continue the folic acid supplementation can improves folate status. Women and their partners who have reported folic acid supplement intake were categorized as users or nonusers of supplements. The use of folic acid intake was addressed at a subsequent preconceptional consultation. Differences between reported supplement users and nonusers before counselling as well as between assumed users and nonusers of folic acid were analyzed. A total of 111 eligible women participated. Preconceptional folic acid use can improves the folate status among women planning to conceive. SECTION-IV: STUDIES RELATED TO HEALTH AWARENESS AND PROMOTION OF PRECONCEPTION CARE Vause, Jones, Evans, Wilkie, Leader., (2009) conducted a study whether counselling before conception is important. After completing the knowledge survey the woman was sent for initial assessment. 400 surveys were used for the data analysis. Patients were informed about the health optimization, consumption of folic acid, exposure to infectious disease, use of medication and use of recreational drug. Nulliparous women were found less knowledgeable. The more educated women had more knowledge. It was suggested that the women need their physicians to educate about pre-pregnancy lifestyle. Delvoye, Guillaume, Collard, Nardella, Hannecart, Mauroy., (2009) conducted a study regarding preconception health promotion. The study results showed that preconception care was not able to provide when pregnancy was unplanned. The study proposes flour fortification with folic acid; timely immunization, continuous training of health care providers in the provision of preconception cares. Delgado CE., (2008) done a study to assess undergraduate student awareness regarding preconception health. In the study 241 students were included as the sample. A questionnaire was designed to assess awareness related to preconception health and pregnancy. By answering 64% the students showed a mild to moderate level of awareness regarding preconception care. Individual student scores varied a great deal, ranging from 33% to 89% correct. Students who had previous such course containing information on pregnancy and/or child development correctly answered a greater percentage of items than those who had not taken such a course. Females had statistically significantly, higher awareness scores than males. Students demonstrated a high level of awareness for use of substance, a moderate level of awareness for sexually transmitted diseases and preconception care, and lower levels of awareness for folic acid, prenatal development, health, and pregnancy spacing. SECTION-V: STUDIES RELATED TO BETTY NEUMANNS SYSTEM MODEL Deepa Thomas, (1998) conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of instructional module on knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in selected schools in Trivandrum. In her study she used Betty Newmans System model (1989) for creating awareness regarding menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Stressors in her study were hormonal, physical and psychosocial changes and the existing superstitions and lack of knowledge of adolescent girls and the reaction was poor menstrual hygiene and maladjustment. She used two interventions in her study. The primary prevention was done by using the instructional module for providing education to the adolescent girls regarding menarche, development of secondary sexual characteristics and menstrual hygiene. In her study the secondary prevention was detection of unhygienic practices and education to correct the practices. The reconstitution in her study was the better adjustment and better hygiene. Alpha.G., (2008) conducted a study to find the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding changes related to puberty and menstrual hygiene among prepubertal girls in selected schools, at Salem. In her study she used Betty Newmans System model (1989) for creating awareness regarding menstrual hygiene among prepubertal girls. Stressors in her study were the physical and psychosocial changes related to puberty. She used one intervention in her study. The primary prevention was done through structured teaching programme on changes related to puberty and menstrual hygiene. The reconstitution in her study was the better knowledge and attitude towards pubertal changes and menstrual hygiene.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Indian Awakening In Latin America :: essays research papers

The Indian Awakening in Latin America   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This book describes difficulties of the Indians who inhabit the following countries: Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, Panama, and Brazil. This book is a compilation of the various struggles of indians living in these countries of Latin America. For over four centuries, these people have been taken advantage of by the Europeans who invaded their lands. Many of the customs and traditions of the Indians in Latin America have struggled for survival throughout the centuries from the problems that the whites have caused. Latin American Indians have struggled through hardships created by the whites that include a loss of lands, slavery, discrimination, a complete rearrangement of their beliefs and cultures, ethnocide, and genocide.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Latin American Indians have struggled for centuries since the invasions of their lands to reclaim their lands, and way of life. The lands for them is not simply dirt for them to cultivate. The various Indian cultures have lived with their lands in harmony for thousands of years. The land to them is their sense of identity in which they respectfully care for and live with in harmony. The land which they once owned was meticulously cared for and the lessons which they learned of respect for nature was passed down to their children for generations. Much of the land they once owned was stolen from them when the Europeans invaded.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Another aspect which was described in this book was religion and the effects it had on the natives of Latin America. The Catholic church was forced upon many of the Indians when the European, mainly Spanish, ideologies were forced upon the Indians. The church claimed to want to help them to enrich thier lives and help their communities. The new church soon forced the natives to work for many days without any pay. The impression of the church was forcfully imposed on them in many ways. The Europeans believed that the Indians were not equall to them. The believed the Indians did not know any better, and the religion they followed wasn't the true one. If the Indians didn't want to worship the Catholic religion, harm was given to them oftentimes. Religion has always been an important life to the Indians of Latin America. It has been an integral part of their life for thousands of years. Although disputs about religion has been going on since the beginning of time, the pressure which the Spanish settlers imposed on them was one which was integrated with dominance. The dominance which was imposed on the Indians of Latin Americans when the Spanish settlers arrived, stripped the Indians rights to have the freedom to

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Lynyrd Skynyrds Song Freebird :: essays research papers

On their Gold and Platinum album Lynyrd Skynyrd produced a song titled Free bird. It is a very popular song that turned out to be a big hit all over the country. It was written by band members Allen Collins and Ronnie VanZant. I think that this is a very good song with good lyrics that display a lot of meaning. Lynyrd Skynyrd is a southern rock band that has been very popular throughout the late nineteen hundreds. They have produced many songs on many different albums. Songs that come to my mind are What’s Your Name, Simple Man, Sweet Home Alabama, and Free bird. The two main people of this band, or should I say most powerful members were Allen Collins, and Ronnie VanZant. They did a majority of the song writing and seemed to be the two always in the spotlight. One of my favorite songs they produced was Free bird. I have two ideas of what I think this song means. The first one is that I think it is about a guy who is leaving his girlfriend. He says, I must be traveling on now because there’s too many places I’ve got to see. It seems to me that he wants to go because there is other things he wants to do. He wants to be a free man and get away. He also says, that if I stay with you girl things just couldn’t be the same. He states that he is free as a bird now and this bird you can not change. The way I kind of understand it is that maybe he has a problem and she don’t like it and wants him to change, but he knows he cant. I think he comes to believe that the only way to solve the problem is if he just leaves and lives his own life as he wants to. I believe that goes to show why he says he is a free bird that she can not change. Another way I interpreted it, was as a one-night stand and he was talking about what wou ld happen the next day when he has to leave. I think he might like her, but cant change. By changing I think he cant just settle down and be with someone he loves. I think he is too into the one-night stand thing and cant change his lifestyle be dedicated to having a girl friend.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

High School and Handball Essay

There should always be something special to you that will warm your heart when you think of it. As I sit at home everyday, I think of this special thing that will brighten my day and get me off my seat. Ever since I can remember, handball was one of the few things I never got bored of in my life. Handball to me is more than a sport or something to past time. It has been a way for me to meet new people and make new friends. It all began when I was a little kid. I would always play games and never stop even if my parents took them away. But nothing could stop me from waking up at night secretly, and playing my Game Boy until I fell asleep. Then there was that one day when my mom bought me this red bouncy ball. She told me to play with it instead of my stupid games. I listened to her, and I started playing with the ball daily. At that time, I didn’t know what this ball would bring to my life, but soon I realized. After playing countless hours, I stopped staying up late, because I was so exhausted. I didn’t just bounce the ball around my house because I was bored. Sometimes, I threw it at my house walls and smacked it back with my hand so it wouldn’t get past me. This was probably when I first started doing something similar to what we know as â€Å"handball. † As I was a teenager, there was this park across the street from my junior high school. The park was quite big and was called Seth Low Park. I remember one day, during 6th grade, a friend of mine, named Nabeel asked me if I wanted to play handball with him after school at Seth Low Park. Excitedly, I told him that I would love to, but I didn’t know how to play. He didn’t mind, so after school that day, I went to play with him. He told me that all I had to do was hit the ball to the wall with my hands. I was eager to try this sport, so I practiced with him every day. He noticed that I was a quick learner and asked me if I ever played handball before. I told him I used to smack a ball around at home and he commented on how well I could return the ball to the wall. I didn’t know what to say. This was my first time playing, and it seemed like I was a better player than he was. I guess I really was born to be a handball player. As years went by, the only thing that I cared about was school and handball. Whenever I stressed from school or wanted to feel free and away from work, I would put on my shorts and run out to play. Nothing matters to me when I step on the court. I forget everything and just concentrate on my game. My love for handball was so great that when the sun had set and the sky was dark, I was still at the park swinging away my arm. Sometimes my arm began to hurt after playing for several hours but I continued to play, ignoring the pain. Even with these side effects, handball has helped me improve my reflexes and increased my stamina. Even to this day I still play handball. My present reflects my past on how I play. I keep getting better and better and every once in a while I meet new people, who are even better than me or people who play around my level. And as I get better, I helped them realize their mistakes and flaws which made me a better player as well. When I have a hard game, I feel challenged and it’s a wonderful feeling when you step on a court with another good player. When I win, it feels even better but when I lose I know I tried my best. However, as I played more and more handball, I realized I had a gift in this sport. I couldn’t wait to play in real competition in high school. Apparently, I realized I was better then a lot of people, so I tried out for the Madison handball team. I was really surprised when I got in because I had to play against the top players in the school. I was so sure that I would not make the cut, but I did and I was really excited. I couldn’t wait for the 1st practice and see how good the team was. After a few days of practice, I realized there were a lot of good players on the team. This motivated me to practice harder and get better at the sport. In the future, I hope I will have enough time to continue playing handball. It has had a huge impact on my life and I will never forget about it. It is both a great sport, and a friend to me that has helped me through rough times. When I did not know what to do, I turned to handball. It takes my mind off problems and most importantly, when I need it, its there. Meeting new people through handball and becoming friends with them is a wonderful thing. There is always something to share with them and they are always there at the handball courts with you. Handball will always have a special place in my life because without it, I would be another boring person.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Sylvia “A White Heron”

Sylvia â€Å"A White Heron† In â€Å"A White Heron†, there was a young girl named Sylvia, for the first eight years of her life she had lived in a city environment. Sylvia then came to live with her grandmother in a country setting. This is where Sylvia became alive and one with nature. During her travel through the country side one morning she noticed a man who was searching for a white heron that he had seen a few weeks ago. At first Sylvia was scared of this man, he carried a gun and killed white heron’s, although he really cared for this animal.As Sylvia spent time with this man, she began to really like him. Sylvia is a lost young country girl who is torn between her love for the young man who collects birds and her love for nature and its beauty. While living in the farm house her only companion seems to be a cow. Although it may seem like Sylvia is lonely she really isn’t. She is happier in the country then she would be in a city setting. Sylvia spe nds all day at one with nature while at the farm.While the young man is intensively looking for the white heron, he winds up coming through her territory which makes Sylvia extremely upset. He apologizes to Sylvia and tries to explain that he got lost, but she becomes so upset that she labels him the â€Å"enemy† in the beginning. Sylvia feels threatened by him and becomes fearful. The young man tries to get Sylvia to lead him to the white heron by offering her ten dollars as a reward. Although Sylvia loves nature, and everything about it she thinks about how poor she really is and all the things that the ten dollars could buy.The money offering to Sylvia disrupted her sense of loyalty to nature. But as Sylvia spent time together with this man she found him appealing. Sylvia’s heart became excited from this man and although she was only a child her heart became filled with love towards this man that she had only came to know. Sylvia admired him so much, she had never m et a man so â€Å"charming. † Sylvia knew where the young man who was a huntsman could find the white heron that he was looking for.Both of them played the gender roles they were suppose to in society, as the female Sylvia would not lead him to the nest of the heron, or start a conversation first. Sylvia would just look around and take in her surroundings as well as observe the young man and his every move. With Sylvia not talking it helps saving the bird and not giving away where the heron’s nest really is. While being out with the huntsman she became closer to him, but was not as close with nature as Sylvia usually was.Sylvia was not really able to sleep at all that night, so she went for a walk in the forest. She climbed the big oak tree looking for the heron’s nest, as Sylvia was climbing the tree branches were hard for her to climb through and gave her many scratches. As Sylvia fought through the branches and came to see light at the top of the tree she saw where the heron was nesting. Sylvia comes back to reality and the realization that she can not give up the herons nesting spot. Sylvia realizes that the young man was trying to come between her and nature.Sylvia balanced out her options of giving the young man the heron because of the money and being one with nature, and realized that she could not give the birds life away. Although Sylvia was so smitten by this man and knew giving up the heron’s location could be worth it, in the end she knew that she could not betray nature. After spending the morning with the bird, she realized that no man should or could ever be swayed by a man’s charm. Sylvia became a tough strong hearted feminist that would not give up or betray what she believed in for any one, especially a man.Sylvia devoted her life to the world of nature and knew it would always be there for her. In this short story, Sylvia is tempted to betray the world of nature by the young man or the huntsman which repre sents â€Å"evil. † This story shows the struggle between good and evil, the constant seduction of good by evil and how to follow your instinct and go with what you truly believe in. Sylvia in a sense is the heron, untouched and at peace with her environment. Although because of external forces, which would be the hunter, Sylvia losses her innocence.If Sylvia would of given up where the heron nested it would of been like giving up a part of her and what she stands for. In this story Sylvia and the heron need each other for survival. It was not possible for Sylvia to betray nature, because if she did she would no longer be the same person. She was able to ignore the attraction of a man, money and attention for something she felt loyalty towards. Sylvia showed how she grew as a women and stayed loyal to her values that she felt so strongly about and making her relationship to the world of nature even stronger.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Family Traditions

I always know it is Thanksgiving morning when I awake to the smell of the turkey roasting in the oven and the cinnamon apple spice tea brewing on the stove. The rest of the morning is spent helping my mom and grandmother cooking in our large open kitchen. Every year for as long as I can remember, my grandmother uses my Nana’s recipes when cooking the thick butter garlic mashed potatoes, homemade sweet red cranberry sauce, and the rich creamy dark gravy. On the other hand, my mom and I always cook the French green beans, sausage and bread stuffing, and also our homemade pumpkin pie together. While the women spend most of the early afternoon in the kitchen getting things ready, the men normally gather in the living room and watch sports or play a board game on the coffee table. It is a rule in our house that no man is allowed in the kitchen while we are cooking unless he is coming to help with dishes; otherwise the men eat all the food as it is being prepared. Thanksgiving is a day where my entire family can get together and enjoy excellent food as well as each other’s company. My father who lives in the beautiful Birmingham, Alabama drives down every year the day before Thanksgiving and stays with us throughout the weekend. He always brings the finest fresh sweet tea and homemade peach cobbler you can find in Alabama which are essential to our Thanksgiving meal. However, my maternal grandparents drive down from Memphis, Tennessee and bring along with them a small present for each of the kids; which include my two brothers, Jonathan and Harrison, and my sister Allies. Even though this is a day for my family to spend time together, we have always welcomed anyone without a place to go or family to be with to spend it with us as well. Some of the past years we have had neighbors join us and also friends of the children. After we all eat we go outside and plays tackle football. I and my dad are usually the captains. I’ve won the past couple years due to the fact of young age. Some games get to intense due to the fact that my cousin has broken a wrist for being so soft. Playing football has to be my favorite because I love sports and beating my cousin who hates losing to me because everyone thinks I’m a better athlete. I also love beating my little brother. Next we watch the football that is always on ESPN. My uncle is a huge football fan so he is always looking to take bets. One year I bet my uncle 20 pushups the Detroit Lions would lose and of course I won the bet and my uncle had to twenty pushups but he only did like ten due to the fact that he is badly out of shape. I love my family holidays and my family traditions.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Family diversity in today’s society Essay

Examine the extend,of and the reasons for family diversity in today’s society. Many sociologists argue that the nuclear family is a universal and dominate institution however there has been an increase in diverse family types for various reasons. Examples of these diverse families are lone parents, reconstitutions and cohabitation families. Although most people experience life in a nuclear family, it represents only a stage in their life cycle. Social and demographic changes have meant that an increasing part of many people’s lives are spent in households that are not based on conventional nuclear families. Firstly the increase of single parents (lone parents) has tripled since 1970s in the UK. About 25% of all families with dependent children are single-parent families. There are various reasons which contribute to the increase of single parenthood but one main one is the demographical changes in the UK, is divorce. Divorce was legalised in the early 1970s and as a con sequences it is cheaper and easier to get a divorce and this one of the explanations for the growth in lone-parent families since the early 1970’s. Whereas in the past it would take years to get a divorce and even then the outcome was not always fair. Feminist argue that diversity is valued and liberal as it gives women a choice. They also argue that this not only benefits women but en as well as they can have more time with the child and care for their children, then in the past that was only seen as the women job. However these traditional values are stilled established by ethnic groups not so much. Another reason for the increase in single parent families is due to greater acceptance in society. There is no longer as stigma that you have conceives a child with in marriage. This is interlinked with secularisation, which means the decline in religious practice and thinking. Therefore religion has very little influence over people lives hence they have a wider option in regards to the type of family they chose. The media also contributes the greater acceptance of single-parents as it depicts them in a positive light today, whereas in the past were it was seen as ‘sinful’. The increase is in single parent families is also due to help of the welfare state. The welfare state provides the single pare nt finical support hence taking the position or the role of the father. As a result women no longer need to rely on men or marriage for support. The increase in never married single mother now accounts for about 40% of all lone parents. Although Britain has become more diverse single  parenthood is still not accepted by everyone. The new right thinker Charles Murray (1984) argues that the increase in lone-parents is due to the over generosity of the welfare state as they have provide for both the parent and their children. Murray argue that this creates ‘perverse incentive’, that is rewarding irresponsible behaviour hence creating a ‘dependency culture’ in which people assume that the state will support them. One of the consequences of the lone parent family is step families (often called reconstituted families) which accounts to about 10% of families with the dependent children in the UK. A reconstituted family is made up of an adult couple, living with at least one child from a previous relationship of one of the partners. However although there is an increase in diverse family types the stepfamily are more at risk of poverty because the stepfather would have to provide for his current step children and his children form a previous relationship. In addition a difference in sexuality has contributed to the increase in family diversity. Gay and lesbian households have become more common and more acceptable in society than in the past. As Jeffrey Weeks, Donovan and Heaphey did their study in 1999 they argue, ‘During the past generation the possibilities of living an openly lesbian and gay have been transformed’. According to Weeks et al (1999) the same sex families look upon their household and friendship network as a chosen family. Same sex families have more option than the conventional heterosexual family and others see these families and an alternative and continuous devolving. Weeks et al argues that this part of a wider social change which can be based on culture and ethnic difference. Another sociologist called Roseneil (2005) develops the idea of chosen your own family. She uses the term hetronorm to refer to the intimate relationship between a heterosexual couple is seen as normal. Cheal (2002) notes that many gays and lesbians are legally allowed to adopt nevertheless many want to retain status of difference because they may feel that by adopting a child they are being shaped or moulded to portray a heterosexual family. Another main reason in why same- sex families increase is the decline in secularisation because some religions condemn homosexuality and now less people are religious in the UK they are more acceptant of homosexuals. Another type of family is singletons; this means that when someone lives by themselves. About 3 in 10 household contains one person. The reasons for  these changes are the increase in separation and divorce has created more 1 person households especially with men under 65 because children are more likely to live with their mother. Also the decline in marriage and the trend in marrying later because people are living longer hence there are more people that are single. Stein (1976) argues the growing number of people choosing to be single is a deliberate choice. However, while many of these choose to remain single some are alone because e there are few partners available in their age group. Furthermore, another type of household is living apart together. It is often assumed that those living alone do not have a partner. However the researcher by Duncan and Phillips (2208) found that 1 in 10 adults are ‘living apart together’ and has become increasingly common. Living apart together is a significant relationship, but not married or cohabiting. Duncan and Phillips found that some couple cannot live together for finical reason and the minority actively chose to live apart may be because they want to keep their home as a security because if the relationship does not work then at least they have a home to go to. Nonetheless although there are various other families it does demolish the existence of the nuclear family as they are still common but it has changed hence becoming more modern. Perspectives like the functionalist and new right as described to be ‘modernist’ because they see modern society. The nuclear family has shaped and changed to fit society which helps maintain it by performing some essential functions. According to Chester (1985), there was little evidence that people were choosing to live on a long-term basis in alternatives to the nuclear family. However, he did accept that some changes were taking place in family life. In particular, many families were no longer ‘conventional’ in the sense that the husband was the sole breadwinner. He accepted more women are out working to finical support their family. He called this new family form, in which wives have got jobs, the neo-conventional family. Although many people are not part of the nuclear family at one time in the life is largely due to the life-cycle. Many people who are currently living alone i.e. widows, singleton or those who are yet to get married, were either part o f a nuclear family in the past or will be in the future. Chester argues that the statistics is misleading and does not portray that most people will spend a major part of their life in a nuclear family. The extended family is another type of family which is three  generations living together. The extended family was strongest in working-class families. It is less important today because of geographical mobility, but research by Finch and Mason (1993) shows that kinship ties are still important for most. They also receive finical help from extended family and they also found that the women are more actively involved with extended family. Wilmot (1988) did his study on the dispersed extended family and the beanpole family. Wilmot (1988) argues that there are four main types of extended family; extended family of residence where the members live in the same household, the local extended family – where 2 or 3 nuclear families live separately but in close proximity and see each other often, the dispersed extended family – nuclear families who see each other frequently but live further apart and do not see each other as regularly and the attenuated extended family – similar to the dispersed extended family but the contact is even less frequent. Brannen (2003) argues that there is a strong intergenerational links between generations mainly because people are living longer. However the links between the intragenerational links between siblings, cousins etc. were somewhat weaker. Therefore Brannen characteristic contemporary family structure as being long and thin and she compares it to the beanpole. A beanpole family is a nuclear family with one or two children who maintain regular contact with grandparents. Furthermore another concept which has contributed to the increase in diverse families is culture diversity. There’s is an increase of people with different ethnic background hence this means there alternative family forms and living arrangements. Ghazala Bhatti carries out her study in 1999 on Asian families living in the southern England. She found that the conflict between generations has created a new family type as the children may not marry someone with the same background. However Bhatti stresses that these families were not the norm. Within black families there is high rate of female-headed houses, lone-parent black families has someti mes been seen as evidence of disorganisation which link back to slavery. This is because under slavery when people were taken the children would stay with their mothers. Also due to high rate of unemployment among black men has meant that they cannot provide for their family which as a consequence lead to high rates of desertion or marital breakdown. Also among Asian families their household do contain three generation but most are in fact nuclear  rather than extended families. Larger Asian households also to some extent reflect the value placed on the extended family in Asian cultures. These differences are likely to have resulted from the fact that many Asian immigrants have come from a traditional agricultural economy where family patterns are more like pre-industrial Britain. Thus, minority ethnic families have not just contributed to family diversity through each group having its own distinctive family pattern. They have also contributed to it through developing diverse family patterns within each ethnic group.

Explain How Children and Young People’s Development Is Influenced by a Range of Personal Factors

Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Personal factors There are many factors that influence a child/young person development such as health issues, sensory impairment, disability, learning difficulties. Even before birth a child needs to reach many milestones and however small or large they can cause a delay in a childs development and in many cases are completely out of the childs or parents control.Faulty genetics for example is a factor that is completely out of our control and as a child grows they could face obstacles from their peers if they have the wrong hair colour or are smaller or taller than average. Certain factors before birth can be avoided if a mother-to-be takes care of herself such as not smoking/drinking or taking drugs and this provides the best for her unborn child. If these situations are not avoided issues like low birth weight, traumatic birth, lack of oxygen at birth can all cause long ter m issues and thus contribute to the way a young person learns and develops.If a child suffers from health issues such as asthma, it may make them unable to take part in activities and then lessen the understanding of being able to be part of a team. Learning difficulties, physical disabilities and sensory impairments like blindness and deafness can again can make them unable to socialise and work with other children which is a major part in helping and assisting their development, also they could be withdrawn and make them feel like they don’t belong. A child with learning difficulties can also be held back so then

Friday, September 13, 2019

Financial Analysis of Bahrain Mari. & Mer. Inter.Co Assignment

Financial Analysis of Bahrain Mari. & Mer. Inter.Co - Assignment Example Bahrain Mari. & Mer. Inter.Co Company Profile: Bahrain Mari & Mer Inter co. is also known as BMMI in Bahrain stock market. BMMI principal activities are whole selling and retailing of food, beverages and other consumable items. Company also provides services in shipping. BMMI's headquarter is located in the Kingdom of Bahrain, and with international operations spanning three continents, BMMI is a diversified retail and distribution, and contract services and supply group, supported by a world class integrated logistics capability. BMMI is one of the fastest growing companies in the list of the companies which are listed on the Bahrain Stock Exchange. BMMI has an annual turnover in excess of US$ 230 million. Company adopts a costumer focus business approach and follows the international standards and global best practices. BMMI Group now has a presence in seven countries across three continents of the world, and has staff comprising people of 30 different nationalities. BMMI operates core business area. The group has owns and operates a chain of Supermarkets in Bahrain, which enjoy a reputation for delivering fast and offering fresh, quality products. BMMI also provide the some other services like remote site and facilities management, contract supply, packed meals and beverage distribution. Financial Analysis of Bahrain Mari. & Mer. Inter.Co. Note: All Accounts' figures have been form BMMI financial statements of three years. Profitability Ratios Liquidity and leverage Ratios: Year 2011 2009 2008 Equity attributable to shareholders' to total assets (%) 78.02 77.27 64.59 Total liabilities to total Equity attributable to shareholders' (times) 0.28 0.29 0.54 Current ratio (times) 3.03 2.80 1.72 Quick ratio (time) 2.32 2.04 1.03 Financial performance: Note: All Accounts' figures have been form BMMI financial statements of three years. It is clear that the recent financial performance of BMMI Co has been good. Total sales revenues are strong at BD 84.8 million despi te a slight decrease compared to BD 87.2 million in 2009. However, According to financial statements of the company the net profit of BD 9.2 million was the fourth highest in the Group’s history, while shareholders’ funds increased to BD 48 million, up seven per cent over 2009. There are also several positive signs. BMMI Co. has not made losses in any of the last three years. There is an impressive increase in liquidity position, with cash and short-term deposits increasing to BD 12.9 million from BD 12 million in 2009. On the side the value of total assets also increased 5.9%. Financial Position: According to the financial statements of the company total operating profit is increased to BD 8.9 million from BD 8.7 million which is the indication of lower selling and distribution expenses. Total assets also increased from BD 57.8 million in 2009 to BD 61.2 million in 2010, due to increases in property, plant and equipment and trade receivables. Earning per share has als o increase .079 to .080. On the other side he underlying net profit and revenue strength of businesses must be highlighted, but this factor can not effect on the company's performance because company strongly capitalized, highly liquid, unleveraged and conservative towards investments. It is clear that with the presence of recessionary pressures from suppliers and customers BMMI has successfully increased its Gross profit margin to 26 per cent. It is the symbol that the company is focusing on primary functions in efficient manner. Investment portfolio can be seen in healthy position but on the other side some devaluation of investments and provision against losses can be seen in BMMI statements. According to BMMI's chairman this is due to the impairments against some losses and further improvement is expected in 2011 as markets continue to recover. Shareholder wealth: Shareholders’ funds increased to BD 48 million, up seven per cent over 2009. This clearly states that BMMI Co has been increasing the

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Building brands with the support of social media Research Paper

Building brands with the support of social media - Research Paper Example In order to increase its profitability, it is imperative that a company finds ways to build the brand. Social media’s role in brand building cannot be overemphasized because of its widespread usage and availability, and cost effectiveness. Analytical section of the paper discusses the Hierarchy of Effects, 1 Foot Cone Belding, and the elaboration effect. Final analysis elaborates likelihood model that can provide companies with assistance in building brands using social media provided that it enables customers to use attitude formation towards the offerings of the brand. Overall Recommendations are for companies to pay attention to characteristics and features valued by customers in their products and services as tweeted by the customers on social media websites, and engage with the customers to find best ways to realize their expectations. Table of Contents 1. Introduction 4 2. Social Media 4 3. Brand 5 3.1 Brand Awareness 5 3.1.1 Foot Cone Belding (FCB) Grid 5 3.2 Brand Imag e 7 3.2.1 The Hierarchy-of-Effects (HoE) Model 7 3.3 Brand Attitude 8 3.3.1 The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) 8 4. Branding in the Age of Social Media 9 5. Recommendations 10 6. Conclusion 11 List of References 12 1. Introduction Use of social media as a tool for brand building is the latest trend and a progressive concept. This trend is commonly observed in higher grade companies particularly in the technologically advanced countries (Nassar, 2012). The following document discusses how social media has helped companies in building brands. The first part of the paper discusses the different sorts of social media, and the tendency of social media to influence and spread businesses and brand’s name. 2. Social Media New Web technologies have revolutionized the way to approach branding for the forward-thinking companies. In the recent years, companies have gained direct access to the customers using such social media services as Google+, Twitter, and Facebook. Number of user s of social media services is growing with time. In addition, these potential customers exist on pages published in social media in a variety of languages, thus allowing brand awareness to penetrate globally. Companies use social media to gain information about their customers including their age, current location, social networks, and hobbies. On the other hand, customers create awareness about brands on social media (Chauhan and Pillai, 2013; Li and Bernoff, 2011). With the growing number of users, social media’s role is being more clearly defined with the passage of time. Consumers are increasingly relying on social media for information, leaving the traditional media as a source of information behind (Mangold and Faulds 2009). Social media websites are aware of their potential to strengthen brands. An example of this is the release of brand pages by Google+ in November 2011 (Sullivan, 2011). 3. Brand In conventional terms, â€Å"brand† means a company’s way of differentiating between itself and its competitors. A brand is conventionally understood as the registered name of a product or service whereas its definition extends beyond that to include a variety of features like a term or a symbol (Hart and Murphy, 1998). Brands serve as signals that trigger perceptions in the minds of consumers regarding the image of a brand shaped by organization’

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

About smoking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

About smoking - Essay Example In the current society, many people smoke since it looks fashionable and outgoing. Therefore, in their personal perception, smoking looks cool. Such smoking practices lead to different effects that alter your daily activities. The most common effect is addiction. Scientific research shows that smoking one cigarette can lead to affection of smoking more and more cigarettes. This results into addiction and might become part of life of the victim. Furthermore, smoking has horrible effects on the human body. When an individual smokes a cigarette, they cause major health problems to themselves and the people around them. This activity shortens the lifespan of all the individuals affected by the cigarette smoke. That is why it can result into cancer, emphysema and heart diseases (Slovic, 2001). Smokers are unable to quit smoking cigarettes because it is addictive in nature. The cigarettes contain tobacco and nicotine that are highly addictive. Thus, the body and mind adapts the nicotine effect quickly leading to addiction. In conclusion, it is evident that smokers understand the consequences of puffing cigarettes, but find it hard to quit. Even though, it reduces stress, personal issues and pressure, it is not advisable to start smoking. Individuals should consider the harmful impact of smoking before adopting the new

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Service Marketing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Service Marketing - Research Paper Example Talking about the various means of travelling in UK, the prominent ones are trains, ships and airways. All the three have become really advanced and providing great facilities and services to its clients. Now the journey is no more called as the boring time as the companies do their best to make the traveler feel like home and provide the quality time spent during travelling. There are number of companies who have already stepped into this industry as it is profit earning business and that has provoked a tight competition. Therefore any newbie has to struggle hard so that to make its place in this business. Before deciding any particular sector, let’s have a look at the general overview of the three main travelling means. Airways: UK major industry emphasize on the airways. According to the recent facts and figures, 235 million people use this means to travel a year and 2.3 million tonnes of freight is carried out via airways. In the recent years, the number of air travelers h as increased because of the fact that the income of people has also increased. Additionally, the time factor is most important thing that is considered today and airways is one of the fastest means of travelling. Aviation business is operated commercially and privately without subsidy. Therefore it is very important to plan out everything in prior and have negotiations with other countries’ aviation sector. Proper strategies and policies are required to be developed that support the department for long term. This business runs in collaboration of different departments like an airport, airlines, regulators and government sectors. In addition to this, they need support of international governments, embassies, customer representatives and trade associations as well. Civil Aviation Authority is the main department that regulates this industry. It keeps the record of safety, economic, airspace policy and consumer protection regulation. CAA is the department who negotiates with the government on issues of aviation, customer interests and also establishes statistical data after collecting information via economic and scientific research. In UK, air traffic management services are being provided by National Air Traffic Services (NATS) that is being regulated by the CAA. There are two main shareholders of NATS; one is the Government and the other Airline group consists of 7 UK airlines. In previous years, most of the people used to travel via trains and ships as because of the low rates. But now after the airlines have started offering low rates, the air travelling has become affordable for the mediocre person as well. But still due to the economic and security conditions there are many people who prefer to travel via means of ship or trains. Secondly, majority people use only trains and buses for the short distance travelling as it cost them much less. Therefore the trains and buses are big substitute threat for the airlines. Opportunities and threats to Airlin es Since the last few years, airline business is bearing major losses due to some reasons like first due to the security reasons after 9/11 issue then the recession period made it difficult for the people to afford high rates of the airlines. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) estimated loss of approximately $4.7 billion in 2009. Revenues were predicted to decrease by 12%. According to the facts and figures, Airlines bear loss of

Monday, September 9, 2019

Coy Mistress assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Coy Mistress assignment - Essay Example Women, by nature, are more shy and timid to express their love all on a sudden in the public. The sensual instinct of the speaker in coercing the mistress to make immediate love is clear to the readers as well as to the lady. There is also a tone of contempt, in the voice of the speaker, for the natural forms of love making and the means of passing the ‘long love’s day’. â€Å"We would sit down and think which way / To walk, and pass our long loves day; / Thou by the Indian Ganges side / Should’st rubies find...† (Marvell, lines 3-6) Though the speaker is able to state some essential facts about the temporary nature of time and life, he forgets the general facts about love. He is concerned about the material and physical love and he is practical in approach. Thus he states that â€Å"Thy beauty shall no more be found, / Nor, in thy marble vault, shall sound / My echoing song...† (Marvell, lines 25-7) Love is not anything spiritual or sublime t o him – it is merely a physical activity which he calls ‘sport’. â€Å"Now therefore, while the youthful hue / Sits on thy skin like morning dew, / And while thy willing soul transpires / At every pore with instant fires, / Now let us sport us while we may...† (Marvell, lines 33-6) Therefore, the mistress is able to recognize the lack of credibility and trustworthiness in the words of the

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Leadership styles of three leaders Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Leadership styles of three leaders - Term Paper Example Executive A was humble and he never took the credit of the success, but also considered his teammates for the success of his company. He had the habit of taking the blames on his own shoulders. This quality of Executive A makes him a Level 5 leader. Level 5 leaders do not have the habit of seeking success for the glory. They shy away when they are praised, but they take important and risky decisions fearlessly. A level 5 leader is considered to be a great leader that has all the leadership qualities with a blend of humility. Leadership of Leader BLeader B also considers that when a subordinate commits mistake, it is solely his responsibility and he should be punished for such deed. Leader B is a task-oriented leader. He specifies the tasks and goals that have to be achieved. In this form of leadership style, close supervision and control can be seen. He also has transactional leadership qualities because he utilizes his power to reward or punish employees for their performance or tas k. A transaction leader leads his team and has the power to evaluate, train and rectify his subordinates. He rewards effectively for good performances but also does not tolerate bad performance.Leadership of Leader CLeader C follows the goals and objectives of Executive A. He welcomes employee feedback and inspires them to achieve great success. He sets high goals for the subordinates so that they aspire to achieve them. He wants to be a mentor for his employees rather their boss.... He had the habit of taking the blames on his own shoulders. This quality of Executive A makes him a Level 5 leader. Level 5 leaders do not have the habit of seeking success for the glory. They shy away when they are praised, but they take important and risky decisions fearlessly. A level 5 leader is considered to be a great leader that has all the leadership qualities with a blend of humility. Leadership of Leader B Leader B also considers that when a subordinate commits mistake, it is solely his responsibility and he should be punished for such deed. Leader B is a task-oriented leader. He specifies the tasks and goals that have to be achieved. In this form of leadership style, close supervision and control can be seen. He also has transactional leadership qualities because he utilizes his power to reward or punish employees for their performance or task. A transaction leader leads his team and has the power to evaluate, train and rectify his subordinates. He rewards effectively for good performances but also does not tolerate bad performance. Leadership of Leader C Leader C follows the goals and objectives of Executive A. He welcomes employee feedback and inspires them to achieve great success. He sets high goals for the subordinates so that they aspire to achieve them. He wants to be a mentor for his employees rather their boss. He listens to his team members and takes their feedback to bring about positive changes in the organization. So Leader C has transformational leadership qualities. He has the ability to motivate employees and drive them towards the success of the company and also their individual achievement. He has the qualities to bring about

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Writing Class Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Writing Class - Essay Example I learnt a number of aspects about writing this semester. In the initial weeks, I kept using additional sources were they were not necessary. In the second week for example, I used different outside sources instead of sticking to the video that I was to describe. In the third week, I still used other sources, where I was expected to use my own ideas. In the fourth week however, I managed to use correct sources and I cited most of the statements I gave well. However, there were still a few ideas that lacked proper citations The biggest challenge I faced as a writer is that of creating paragraphs with a clear focus. This is majorly because I could create specific topic sentences that would guide me. A single paragraph should elaborate on one idea but mine were generally most often (Connelly 208). In my first two write-ups onto the third one, my paragraphs were still not clear since they did not seem to lead to one point. This is probably because I did not outline the work properly prior. The professor advised that I should stick to one idea in every single paragraph instead of mixing them all up in one paragraph because it will not only confuse the reader but also affect the flow of work. In the fourth week however, I had learnt how to create topic sentences since only a few paragraphs lacked the topic sentences. Moreover, in the third week, I also had problems with my choice of word. Generally, the language and grammar was not to the level expected. This is evident in the instance where I used the term cleavage as a synonym to differences. Growth was evident when it came to the creation of a clear thesis as well as strong introductions. In my early consecutive papers, the introduction could not interest a reader. Towards the third week, I still had problems producing good introductions that would capture the interest of the reader. It had however improved since I incorporated better choices of words.  

Friday, September 6, 2019

Old Growth Forest Essay Example for Free

Old Growth Forest Essay Question: a strong opponent of logging old growth forests Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am Leeson, and today I am going to talk about whether we should log the old growth forests. Firstly, what are old growth forests? Old growth forests are those where the overstore is in the late mature growth stage with the presence of relatively large old trees, many containing hollows and often with the presence of dieback or dead branches in the crown. They are so important to the human life, as they are like the climate change mitigation. Also, a lot of animals can only live in old growth forests, just like fish can only live in water. In Victoria, we know old growth forests to be â€Å"Forests which contain significant amount of its oldest growth stage in the upper stratum. † What does this mean? It means these forests are historically, culturally, ecologically significant and valuable. Therefore, we human have no reason to log any of the old growth forest. Firstly, the old growth forests mitigate the climate change. Old-growth forests store large amounts of carbon in wood, humus, and peat, they are an important part of carbon sequestration and its impacts on climate change and climate change mitigation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said in its 2007 report: â€Å"In the long term, a sustainable forest management strategy aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks, while producing an annual sustained yield of timber, fibre or energy from the forest, will generate the largest sustained mitigation benefit. As we know, the climate problem is one of the most serious problems that human are facing to, if we keep logging the old growth forests for human living while we are polluting the environment for human development, we will not have a nice future to be with. So stop logging the old growth forest! Secondly, old growth forests are the only home for a lot of animals. Image if I drive a bulldozer through in your home, how would this make you feel? Where would you go? The ecologically value and significance of old- growth-forests is they can do something that other forests cannot do: they act as the home of various forms of wildlife. Without old growth forests, where would they live? The report from Bureau of Rural Sciences from Australian Government said: â€Å"A number of wildlife species are reliant on these types of forest because of the range of nesting hollows and greater structural complexity they have in comparison with forests in earlier stages of development. Obviously logging the old growth forests indicates killing plenty of wildlife, and it is not humane at all! That’s why we shouldn’t log the old growth forests. In conclusion, the old growth forests are acting a important role in nature, not only do they house various forms of wildlife, but they also store more carbon then they emit, so that to mitigate the climate change. Hence, we should not log the old growth forest, for any human use. Thank you!

Thursday, September 5, 2019

Management of Local Environmental Projects

Management of Local Environmental Projects There are various methods or approaches that can be used to manage local environmental projects through the implementation of environmental management measures with varying degrees of success and effectiveness. The methods and approaches used to manage local environmental projects can vary due to the objectives, active group membership, and the actual geographical location of those environmental projects. The scale and objectives of local environmental projects can vary greatly, ranging from short-term projects with a single objective such as regenerating a polluted area or on longer- term projects with many objectives. These environmental projects will range from those with a few volunteer members to those that could involve hundreds of people and rely on links between pressure groups, volunteers, and local or even national government. Since environmental projects started to emerge from the late 1960s as concern began to grow about the ecological impact of human economic activities methods of environmental project management have evolved. For ecologists the planning and implementation of local environmental projects has always been a major part of their strategy as a means of empowering local communities to improve their quality of life whilst helping the local environment. Local environmental projects had the advantage of not being controlled by government or businesses and could be regarded as an important strand of the social movements that emerged almost simultaneously with the ecology movement. Local environmental projects represented and still represent an alternative economic, social and political outlook upon life and how irresponsible material gain should not be the primary objective of governments and societies (Eatwell Wright, 2003 p. 233). Every environmental project should certainly consider the need for project management, whether on a full time, part time, or consultancy basis to maximise the ecological impact of the project. When it comes to protecting the world’s environment people often assume that national governments have the largest role to play in adopting measures to slow down or even reverse ecological damage. However, everybody has an individual responsibility to do their bit to protect their local environment. Environmental projects in theory and frequently in practice have shown that as individual projects they have a limited impact upon the global environment yet if the affects of all the environmental projects were added together they are far from being insignificant (Eatwell Wright, 2003 p. 234). Modern economic practices tend to emphasise that projects and economic activities at the local level are largely insignificant in comparison to regional, national, and international economic trends or decisions. That is not actually the case as much that has been achieved at protecting the environment has been influenced by or implemented by local environmental projects. Local environmental projects can help to change the widely held belief that only multinational corporations and national governments make a difference to the environment as ‘what cannot be measured is of no importance’ (Porritt, 1984 pp. 43-4). The people that manage local environmental projects have to consider several factors once it has been decided to start their environmental project. Unlike the earliest local environmental projects there are now a variety of government, non-governmental and business funding resources available that means people that are involved in local environmental projects do not have to meet the costs of running or working on their environmental projects. That is an important consideration when many environmental project workers could be unemployed or volunteers, the majority of local environmental projects would not be able to function if their workers and volunteers were forced by financial necessity to work elsewhere. For local and community environmental projects that are intended to have a long term future having a skilled environmental project manager that has the knowledge and the experience to attract funding is without doubt essential. An effective environmental project manager came make all the difference between continuing the project for the benefit of the local community and the environment, or the project closing down through lack of funding or volunteers. Funding can come in the form of grants made by central and local government, grants made by non-governmental organisations such as the National Lottery, or through business sponsorship or endorsements. In certain circumstances local and community environmental projects could be used as contractors or sub-contractors to achieve the policies of local and national government. Businesses may genuinely want to help to protect the local environment or they may just want to gain some positive publicity for themselves. Whatever peoples underlying reasons for supporting local and community environmental projects it is clearly in everybody’s self –interest to assist any projects that can protect their local environment (Jackson, 1996 pp. 181-3). As well as staffing levels and funding local environmental projects and their managers should also consider the resources that they need to operate effectively with and whether they can use sustainable resources or not. Local environmental projects may only be on a small barely detectable scale when the global environment is considered as a whole yet they can prove significant at the local level. If every local community could decrease its consumption levels when added together that could have highly beneficial results (Redcliffe, 1996 p. 91). Local and community environmental projects should be projects that effectively manage their resources so that they can limit environmental damage and help prevent or possibly reverse pollution levels within their respective communities. Local and community environmental projects should be evaluated to judge how their resource requirements could be met through sustainable resources, recycling, and the conservation of energy. Local and community environmental projects for instance should try to keep their use of paper, energy, and water to a minimum so as to reduce pollution (Chokar, Pandya, Raghunathan, 2004 p. 137). Thus all local environmental projects where possible should promote greener forms of energy consumption, and transport to improve the environment in their local area. There have not always been enough reasons for local and community environmental projects to proceed as the scientific proof of environmental decline was not widely or publicly accepted (Redcliffe, 1996 p. 136). If practical projects should attempt to use renewable energy sources either by selecting a renewable energy supplier or finding ways to operate their own power supplies (Chokar, Pandya, Raghunathan, 2004 p. 122). Ironically enough local and community environmental projects can become more effective and numerous as a result of national directives or legislation to protect and in some cases to conserve the environment (Jackson, 1996 p.173). Local authorities can help improve the environment in their local areas by promoting traffic free zones and encouraging greener transport use. They could even consider helping local and community environmental projects by assisting those projects in using cycles and promoting walking (Vaz, 1999 p. 99). Local and community environmental projects should also help to protect the local and community environment by recycling as much as possible. Not only is recycling helping to improve environmental sustainability it could also be an extra source of income for some local and community environmental projects depending upon the volume of material recycled. Recycling has the added benefits of reducing the levels of waste and pollution in local communities. The management of local environmental project needs to evaluate the ease of travel to the site of the environmental project. Consideration has to be made for people to walk, cycle or use public transport to reach the environmental project, either as workers, volunteers, or visitors. Transport issues can be more significant if the local and community environmental project is in a rural area with less public transport and greater distances for people to travel to it. Persuading people to walk or cycle to the environmental project would hel p to reduce the vehicle exhaust emissions that increase pollution and acts as a major cause of health conditions such as asthma. Reduced levels of pollution are good for local communities, less pollution brings public health, and economic benefits to those areas compared to other areas were there has been no environmental projects established and operating at all (Vaz, 1999 p. 158). Environmental project managers can gain funding, volunteers and workers for their projects through various channels. Gaining the support of the local community could be just as important for long-term success and continuation as obtaining direct funding can be. Local and community environmental project managers could attract supporters and volunteers by arranging publicity in the local press and television coverage to make people aware of the environmental project and its objectives for improving the environment in the local area. Public awareness can lead to people donating to the project, working for the project, or it can make them adjust their individual behaviour to help the local environment by themselves (Redcliffe, 1996 p.136). Publicity campaigns if well judged or well timed could make the local environmental project newsworthy and with increased support or influence within the local community it is there to help. As well as press releases and articles in local newspapers lo cal and community environmental project workers have found forging relationships with local schools, colleges, and youth organisations is beneficial. Such relationships can prove useful in raising the profile of their local and community environmental project; managers believe it useful in the gaining of workers or volunteers in the present and the future. Local and community environmental projects can form close links with schools, colleges, and youth groups by organising visits to those places or arranging for these groups to visit the environmental project. Project managers could also consider the option of allowing school children to go on projects as part of their work experience training or placement. Recruiting students at college or university could be another source of workers or volunteer as well as recruiting local people from the community (Vaz, 1999 p. 158). Increasing the number of people that visit local and community environmental projects potentially has legal consequences for the management of such projects to worry about. The local and community environmental projects management have to consider that they are legally responsible for the health and safety of everybody that works for, volunteers for, or simply visits their environmental projects. Managers should establish whether any of the materials, waste products, or working practices carried out as part of the projects are dangerous or detrimental to the health and safety of anybody linked to those projects. Before cleaning up pollution managers should check that all work does not contravene health and safety considerations (Jackson, 1996 p.55). Legal liability in the event of accidents could prove costly and lead to the closure of environmental projects that are inadequately insured. Local and community environmental projects especially if they work closely with local government and central government departments may have contractual arrangements that can only be broken or unfulfilled at the cost of legal action been taken or threatened. With local and community environmental projects often needing public funding or believing they need it, the cost of losing such contracts could be financially hard hitting for environmental projects. Environmental projects could also be victims to changes in political policy decision making which might decide to reduce the funding available for environmental projects (Vaz, 1999 p. 138). A good example of a local and community environmental project that has benefited or could benefit from the use of project managers was the Colchester Local Food Project. The Colchester Local Food Project had two distinct objectives. Firstly the Colchester Local Food Project attempted to increase the profile and sales of organically grown products from the Colchester area. Organic farming has obvious environmental advantages, for instance not using artificial fertilisers and pesticides that cause pollution and health problems if not used properly. The other part of the project was to help keep the local farms in business by establishing a Farmers’ market for the local area. The environmental benefits of conventional farming techniques may not be as obvious as organic farming yet farming would cause less damage to the local environment than building new homes or industrial sites on the land. Environmental project managers could have brought benefits to the scheme by finding fund ing for the organic growers and farmers, as well as advice in producing the local food directories and promoting the Farmer’s market. The actual project ran from June 2003 through to December 2004 with the directories helping to improve awareness and food sales ( Bibliography Chokar K B, Pandya M, Raghunathan M, (2004) Understanding Environment, Sage Publications, New Delhi, Thousand Oaks and London Eatwell R Wright A, (2003) Contemporary Political Ideologies 2nd Edition, Continuum, London Jackson T, (1996) Material Concerns – Pollution, Profit and quality of life, Routledge, London and New York Porritt J, (1984) Seeing Green: the politics of ecology explained, Blackwell, Oxford Redcliffe M, (1996) Wasted – Counting the costs of Global Consumption, Earthscan, London Vaz K, (1999) Cities for the future, Hansib Publications Limited, London