Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The Global Leader in E-Commerce - 1605 Words

Being a Fortune 500 company, Amazon, started by Jeff Bezos in 1995, is the global leader in e-commerce. Amazon offers a wide variety of products, ranging from hardcover books to jewelry to electronics, as conveniently as possible to its customers (About Amazon, 2009). Although Amazon has begun to revolutionize retailing, the company’s competitive advantage and evolution has been put into question. The competitive advantage and evolution of Amazon can be analyzed by determining if the company if moving away from its core competency as a leading online retailer, presenting areas where Amazon is competing with Google and Microsoft, addressing the company’s databases and its uses, and describing how Amazon uses e-Business and e-Commerce for†¦show more content†¦Based on the recent news in 2009 regarding Amazon, Google, and Microsoft, web platforms competition is a must. It appears it would be unwise not to compete in such a growing industry where everyday some new form of technology is created. Every company is trying to top the other by incorporating the newest technology, which others may have created, into their next new application or product. As Amazon struggles to maintain market share and increase profitability for the company in general, one has to wonder whether they are spreading themselves to thin. The key question is can Amazon be everything to everybody. This certainly seems to be the direction Amazon is pursuing. Amazon’s IT infrastructure is not running at full capacity and as a result of this, has led to innovative ideas to generate more revenue by allowing customers to pay for and utilize Amazon’s infrastructure on a pay as you go concept. CEO Jeff Bezos (2007) stated, â€Å"What we re doing is levelling the playing field so that small companies can have access to the same low-cost structure as big companies for very reliable backend infrastructure, and to do that in a pay-by-the-drink way -- so that you don t have these big fixed-cost steps that you have to subject yourself to (Information Week,Show MoreRelatedWhy Ebay Is The Best Model For The Integration Of All The Aspects Of E Commerce1393 Words   |  6 Pagestaking notice of the ecommerce market leaders and seeing how they can emulate their success (eBay, Annual Report 2011, 2012). During this case analysis of eBay shopping spree, the following items will be covered: 1. Explain whether or not making so many acquisitions is a risky proposition. 2. Argue why eBay can successfully compete with its top three competitors. 3. Explain why eBay is the perfect model for the integration of all the aspects of e-commerce. Explain whether or not you think makingRead MoreCustomer Centric Organization, Excellent Management Flexibility836 Words   |  4 PagesStrengths †¢ Biggest e-commerce retailer †¢ AmazonPrime membership, free-shipping †¢ Leader in the cloud †¢ High market share †¢ Global brand reputation †¢ Kindle eBook market †¢ Evolving unique production †¢ Customer-centric organization, excellent management flexibility †¢ Variety of products and services Weaknesses †¢ Potential patent infringement †¢ Outages on Amazon’s web servers †¢ Licensing issues with eBooks Opportunities †¢ Rising opportunities in e-commerce sales †¢ Advertising through social mediaRead MoreAlibaba Taobaos837 Words   |  4 PagesEachnet, China’s online auction leader at the time, for USD 180 million and became a major player in the Chinese consumer e-commerce market. To counter eBay’s expansion, Taobao offered free listings to sellers and introduced website features designed to act in local consumers best interests, such as instant messaging for facilitating buyer-seller communication and an escrow-based payment tool, Alipay. As a result, Taobao became mainland Chinas undisputed market leader within two years. Its marketRead MoreLeading For Success : Two Companies Approach1589 Words   |  7 Pagescompany’s internal resources and capabilities as a way to provide a competitive advantage (Jurevicius, 2013). This tool can provide insight into the critical nature an organization assumes with identifying, sourcing and attracting new leadership. Leaders drive organizations, set the tone, establish cult ure and are ultimately accountable for organizational performance. People lead the way to successful operations. Without the right people a business is just walls and capital equipment incapable ofRead MoreSwot Analysis Of Alibuba In China1093 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction: In the year 2016, an e-commerce giant held a one-day sales bonanza that outsold Black Friday and Cyber Monday at all US retailers combined. It was not Amazon’s Prime Day; it was Chinese e-commerce company Alibaba’s â€Å"Singles’ Day Holiday,† in November of 2016, where approximately $17.8 billion worth of goods were sold, according to Business Insider (http://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-prime-day-vs-alibaba-singles-day-2017-7). Alibaba, founded in 1999 by Jack Ma to connect Chinese manufacturersRead MoreOrganizational Structure991 Words   |  4 Pagesdepartments including corporate affairs, human-resources, and international affairs just to name a few. All sectors that the CEO oversees are; ASDA Stores, the United Kingdom counterpart to Walmart; global e-commerce; finance; information technology; corporate affairs; legal; merchandise, and replenishment; global customer insights; human resources; sourcing; international; Sam’s Club; and United States Walmart (Walmartstores.com, 2012). Some departments are further split to handle different activitiesRead MoreTo What Extent Is an E-Commerce Strategy the Best Way for Businesses to Increase Their Profits? (40 Marks)1398 Words   |  6 PagesTo what extent is an e-commerce strategy the best way for businesses to increase their profits? (40 marks) E-commerce is the online transaction of goods and services, which has completely revolutionized business and the way in which businesses can operate. It’s now easier for customers to compare prices/products with a little time spent browsing the Internet opposed to dragging themselves to the stores. This means that e-commerce is having an impact on what and how much businesses sell, thereforeRead MoreCase Study : The Inc.979 Words   |  4 Pagesacross the company to boost the volume of products sold on its site, adding features to its Kindle line of e-readers and tablets and beefing up its inventory. The efforts may help Amazon gain share in a worldwide e-commerce market that Scott, Devitt, an analyst at Morgan Stanley, estimated will reach $1 trillion by 2016, up from $512 billion last year†(Kucera). There are more established e-commerce companies currently taking up a large portion of the market, but Amazon has been working on this marketRead MoreManaging A Business M odel : Porters Five Forces1524 Words   |  7 Pagesbetween governments, industries, businesses and individuals. This interconnectivity has helped to establish the foundation for a globalized community. The ease to establish global boundaries have put new emphasis on the management of systems to support these expanded markets and communications. This places an emphasis on leaders to virtually lead organizations. It also places a new burden on the systems and processes to establish these links, set direction, and monitor and manage outcomes. ThisRead MoreBA 3103 Critical Analysis Paper Pier 11351 Words   |  6 Pagesof the e-commerce era? This paper will help us better understand this decision by employing four analytical frameworks. We begin with the PEST analysis which helps us identify and understand global trends. Figure 1: PEST Analysis of Global Trends: 2010-2015 Political Increased global communication and relationships Economic Inflation increasing globally Increasing oil costs Increasing commodity pricing Social Social Media Decline in population Demographics/Mobility Technological E-commerce Mobile

Monday, December 16, 2019

Stefan’s Diaries The Craving Preface Free Essays

Everything has changed. My body, my desires, my appetite. My soul. We will write a custom essay sample on Stefan’s Diaries: The Craving Preface or any similar topic only for you Order Now In seventeen short years, I’ve born witness to more tragedy than anyone should – and been the cause of far too much of it. With me I carry the memory of my death and that of my brother. I’m haunted by the sound of our last breaths in the mossy woods of Mystic Falls, Virginia, and the image of my father’s lifeless body on the floor of his study in our magnificent Veritas Estate. I still smell the charred church where the town’s vampires burned. And I can almost taste the blood I took and the lives I stole out of sheer hunger and indifference after my transformation. Most clearly I see the curious dreamer of a boy I once was, and if my heart could beat, it would break for the vile creature I’ve become. But though the very molecules of my being have morphed beyond recognition, the world continues to turn. Children grow older, their plump faces thinning with the passage of time. Young lovers exchange secret smiles as they discuss the weather. Parents sleep while the moon keeps watch, wake when the sun’s rays nudge them from slumber. They eat, labor, and love. And always, their hearts pump with rhythmic thuds, the blood as alluring to me as a snake charmer’s tune is to a cobra. I once scoffed at the tediousness of human life, believing the Power I had made me more. Through her example, Katherine taught me that time holds no sway over vampires, so I could become divorced from it, living from moment to moment, moving from one carnal pleasure to the next with no fear of consequences. During my time in New Orleans I was heady with my new Power, my limitless strength and speed. I tore through humans as if their lives were meaningless. Every warm drop of blood made me feel alive, strong, fearless, and powerful. It was a haze of bloodlust. I killed so many, so casually. I can’t even remember the faces of my victims. Except for one. Callie. Her flame-red hair, her clear green eyes, the softness of her cheeks, the way she stood with her hands on her hips . . . every detail stands out in my memory with painful clarity. It was Damon, my brother and former best friend, who dealt Callie her final blow. In turning him into a vampire, I had taken Damon’s life, so he took from me the only thing he could – my new love. Callie made me remember what it was to be human, and what it meant to value life. Her death weighs heavily on my conscience. Now my strength is a burden, the constant thirst for blood a curse, the promise of immortality a terrible cross to bear. Vampires are monsters, killers. I must never, ever forget that again. I must never let the monster take over. While I will forever bear the guilt of what I did to my brother – the choice I made for him – I must also avoid the dark path he is so hell-bent on following. He revels in the violence and freedom of his new life, while I can only regret it. Before I left New Orleans, I battled the demon my brother, Damon, had become. Now, as I remake myself up North, far from anyone who’s ever known me as either a human or a vampire, the only demon I have to battle is my own hunger. How to cite Stefan’s Diaries: The Craving Preface, Essay examples

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Competitors in Electric Vehicle Market †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Competitors in Electric Vehicle Market. Answer: Introduction: Toyota RAV4 has cargo space and functionality, with more fashionable external designing and comfortable control panel. It has advanced off road experience of driving which is mostly favored by the young generation. It has higher setup of entertainment as well as infotainment. The car gives better warranty and sustainability for the purchasers. Surveys have revealed that the car is reliable with spacious interior. It has easier touch screen infotainment, which helps the drivers to easily understand the technology while driving. Their global vision is overcoming all the cultural barriers, from one side to the other side of the world (Cheong, Song Hu, 2016). A target market is referred to a group of individuals having similar needs or characteristics that the company has targeted to achieve. In order to reach 60% of the target market in three years, the company need to reshuffle its strategies. The target market for the Toyota RAV4 is the middle class income groups and the junior citizens. The company has a particular and specific audience in their minds and they mainly target the young adults. They have managed to gain the attention of a large proportion of their target markets (Garbelli 2016). They are looking out for more, by enhancing and improving their marketing strategies. They are targeting the younger audience more as well as the office goers, who requires car for the purpose of daily transportation. Some even wants to change their existing cars and upgrade them for better services. Therefore, marketers should advertise their products as per the consumers behavior. The company should try to create an emotional attachment with th eir target consumers, in order to gain more profit (Hibino, Noguchi Plenert, 2017). Growth goal and objectives Toyota Group has ten different businesses, which includes automobile, electronics, construction, chemical industry and more. It consumes electric hybrid or gasoline, attracts more young generation who loves travelling. The cars target market is mainly the middle class income group consumers and the junior citizens, basically young and full of life. Bank loans are available for the customers who are interested to buy the cars at very affordable interest rates (Hoque et al., 2013). Innovative marketing strategies undertaken by the Company can help in attracting the customers. They should promote themselves widely in all the platforms as well as social media platforms to reach the consumers as fast as possible. They mainly focus on their safety factors and target the family persons. It has high network of distribution and efficient sales. The company has its branches in more than 150 countries across the world (Holbrook, 2015). In this era of digital marketing, it is important to focus on that particular segment of marketing, in order to reach the global market. It will prove to be beneficial for any company, by helping it reach a wide number of customers. It will help in creating brand awareness and image goals; this in turn will help the company grow. Moreover, it is crucial to understand thoroughly, the behavior of the target markets or consumers of the enterprise (Cheong, Song Hu, 2016). Understanding the target markets will help the enterprise get an idea of what exactly their services or products would be and which sort of tactics would work the best. Whenever, the company launches any new product or service, target customers must be invited personally, along with their family members. This will make them feel special (Pohl Yarime, 2012). Image goals and objectives The company should participate in various events and give attention to their customers demands. Based on their marketing strategies, it will create AWARENESS among them. Good techniques of marketing and promotion would INTEREST the consumers. This will create a DESIRE of buying the product. Lastly they will actively perform their ACTION, that is, buy that particular product. Therefore, it is important to be careful while promoting a product. Toyota RAV4 is better than others as it has simple infotainment services, which is easily understandable. It gives a great driving experience, with classy interior and elegant look. In this way, it differentiates itself from its competitors (Hoque et al., 2013). Understanding the behavior of the consumers play a bigger role in shaping the strategies. The company should promote themselves widely in all the platforms as well as social media platforms to reach the consumers as fast as possible. Therefore, digital marketing is important for creating brand recognition. The company should organize various events, where they should invite their target customers personally, to make them feel special. They must look out for innovative strategies to market themselves, in order to compete with their competitors. They should focus more on their services and safety factors, which will attract the customers. They must hire professional employees and public relation officers, who must have good communication skills in order to convince the buyers. The company must announce offers and discounts, keeping the profitability in mind, to attract the buyers as well as create brand awareness (Pohl Yarime, 2012). Conclusion To conclude, the key success factor of the company is related to the design of their products. The cars exterior as well as interior styling has increased its demand. Moreover, the cars interior space, boot size, innovative and easily understandable technology increased its selling points along with the increase in its functionality goal. Most of the consumers love its spaciousness and unique characteristics of driving. Furthermore, with the emergence of the digital world, it has become very easy to promote or market anything and that too at any moment. Thus, digital marketing helped the company reach the global or international platforms and gain abundant attention. References Cheong, T., Song, S. H., Hu, C. (2016). Strategic Alliance with Competitors in the Electric Vehicle Market: Tesla Motors Case.Mathematical Problems in Engineering,2016. Garbelli, M. (2016). Managing Sustainability to Be First: The Toyota Case. InBusiness Challenges in the Changing Economic Landscape-Vol. 2(pp. 41-54). Springer, Cham. Hibino, S., Noguchi, K., Plenert, G. (2017).Toyotas Global Marketing Strategy: Innovation through Breakthrough Thinking and Kaizen. Taylor Francis. Holbrook, M. B. (2015). Creating value: the theory and practice of marketing research. Hoque, I., Faruque, M. O., Shahid, E. M., Pasha, S. H. A., Rahman, S. O. (2013). Analysis of Toyotas marketing strategy in the UK market. Pohl, H., Yarime, M. (2012). Integrating innovation system and management concepts: The development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles in Japan.Technological Forecasting and Social Change,79(8), 1431-1446.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Much Ado About Nothing Essays (563 words) - Hermia, Demetrius

Much Ado About Nothing Lauren Crosson English, 6 3/16/00 Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream In Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream, Lysanders quote The course of true love never did run smooth. (line 134, pg. 7) sums up the main theme of the book perfectly. The book proves that love hath no law but his own, is blind (and often completely absurd), and alls fair in love and war. Practically everything that is said and done in the play relates to this theme. This results in a kind of network that connects all numerous characters together. The fact that love hath no law but his own, presents the various pairs of lovers with problems and odd situations. Theseus, though he loves Hippolyta and will wed her, has won her love by battle. Hermia, for her love of Lysander, defies her father and Athenian law. Demetrius makes love to Helena, and then pursues Hermia. Hermia, wooed by two young men (who are both equally handsome, rich, and well-born), adores one and refuses to acknowledge the other. Demetrius, who has courted Helena (and eventually marries her), hates her for a time, is sick when I [he] do look on thee [Helena] (line 212, pg. 22), and constantly rejects her. she, for a few hours of his haughty company, betrays the secret of her dearest friend: I will go tell him of fair Hermias flight. Then to the wood will he tomorrow night pursue her; and for this intelligence if I have thanks, it is a dear expense. But herein mean I to enrich my pain, to have his sight thither and back again. (line 246, pg. 11) Oberon and Titana are another pair that fall victim to loves chaos. Although they are lord and lady, and eventually rejoin in amity (line 86, pg. 58), are very jealous of one another over Oberons wandering after nymphs and admiring Hippolyta, and Titanas doting on Theseus, to the point where she begins to help him in his earlier love affairs with women. Oberon accuses her of leading .... him [Theseus] through the glimmering night from Perigenia, whom he ravished? And make him with fair Aegles break his faith, with Ariadna and Antiopa? (line 77, pg. 17) Considering almost everything in the play leans toward the theme, different people, with seemingly different problems, can be connected. Titana and Oberons quarrel is reflected in the unseasonable weather on earth and in the mortal lovers quarrel that accompanies the transfer of Lysanders affections. Titanas fondness for Bottom also mirrors the fashion in which Hermia and Helena, and all of the mortals who lavish affection on their loves. It is Theseus maturity and nobility that finally brings order to the pattern and makes everything end happily ever after. Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind, and therefore is winged cupid painted blind. (line 234, pg. 11) A Midsummer Nights Dream proves that love hath no law but his own,. Helena states Nor hath loves mind of any judgment taste; wings, and no eyes, figure unheedy haste. (line 236, pg. 11) Meaning that nor has love, which dwells in the imagination, have any taste, or least bit of judgment or reason. Considering that it has no eyes, and only wings, it is a symbol of hasty mistakes. Loves hastiness is Bibliography No bibliography English Essays

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Aswan High Dam Controls the Nile River

Aswan High Dam Controls the Nile River Just north of the border between Egypt and Sudan lies the Aswan High Dam, a huge rockfill dam which captures the worlds longest river, the Nile River, in the worlds third-largest reservoir, Lake Nasser. The dam, known as Saad el Aali in Arabic, was completed in 1970 after ten years of work. Egypt has always depended on the water of the Nile River. The two main tributaries of the Nile River are the White Nile and the Blue Nile. The sources of the White Nile are the Sobat River and Bahr al-Jabal (the Mountain Nile), and the Blue Nile begins in the Ethiopian Highlands. The two tributaries converge in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, where they form the Nile River. The Nile River has a total length of 4,160 miles (6,695 kilometers) from source to sea. Nile Flooding Before the building of a dam at Aswan, Egypt experienced annual floods from the Nile River that deposited four million tons of nutrient-rich sediment which enabled agricultural production. This process began millions of years before Egyptian civilization began in the Nile River valley and continued until the first dam at Aswan was built in 1889. This dam was insufficient to hold back the water of the Nile and was subsequently raised in 1912 and 1933. In 1946, the true danger was revealed when the water in the reservoir peaked near the top of the dam. In 1952, the interim Revolutionary Council government of Egypt decided to build a High Dam at Aswan, about four miles upstream of the old dam. In 1954, Egypt requested loans from the World Bank to help pay for the cost of the dam (which eventually added up to one billion dollars). Initially, the United States agreed to loan Egypt money but then withdrew their offer for unknown reasons. Some speculate that it may have been due to Egyptian and Israeli conflict. The United Kingdom, France, and Israel had invaded Egypt in 1956, soon after Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal to help pay for the dam. The Soviet Union offered to help and Egypt accepted. The Soviet Unions support was not unconditional, however. Along with the money, they also sent military advisers and other workers to help enhance Egyptian-Soviet ties and relations. Building of the Aswan Dam In order to build the Aswan Dam, both people and artifacts had to be moved. Over 90,000 Nubians had to be relocated. Those who had been living in Egypt were moved about 28 miles (45 km) away, but the Sudanese Nubians were relocated 370 miles (600 km) from their homes. The government was also forced to develop one of the largest Abu Simel temples and dig for artifacts before the future lake would drown the land of the Nubians. After years of construction (the material in the dam is the equivalent to 17 of the great pyramids at Giza), the resulting reservoir was named after the former president of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser, who died in 1970. The lake holds 137 million acre-feet of water (169 billion cubic meters). About 17 percent of the lake is in Sudan and the two countries have an agreement for distribution of the water. Aswan Dam Benefits and Problems The Aswan Dam benefits Egypt by controlling the annual floods on the Nile River and prevents the damage which used to occur along the floodplain. The Aswan High Dam provides about half of Egypts power supply and has improved navigation along the river by keeping the water flow consistent. There are several problems associated with the dam as well. Seepage and evaporation account for a loss of about 12-14% of the annual input into the reservoir. The sediments of the Nile River, as with all river and dam systems, has been filling the reservoir and thus decreasing its storage capacity. This has also resulted in problems downstream. Farmers have been forced to use about a million tons of artificial fertilizer as a substitute for the nutrients which no longer fill the floodplain. Further downstream, the Nile delta is having problems due to the lack of sediment as well since there is no additional agglomeration of sediment to keep erosion of the delta at bay, so it slowly shrinks. Even the shrimp catch in the Mediterranean Sea has decreased due to the change in water flow. Poor drainage of the newly irrigated lands has led to saturation and increased salinity. Over one-half of Egypts farmland in now rated medium to poor soils. The parasitic disease schistosomiasis has been associated with the stagnant water of the fields and the reservoir. Some studies indicate that the number of individuals affected has increased since the opening of the Aswan Dam. The Nile River and now the Aswan High Dam are Egypts lifeline. About 95% of Egypts population live within twelve miles from the river. Were it not for the river and its sediment, the grand civilization of ancient Egypt probably would have never existed.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Spanish Phrases Meaning Unless

Spanish Phrases Meaning Unless A menos que and a no ser que are two of the most common ways in Spanish to express the idea behind the English conjunction unless. Because the verb following either one of these phrases refers to something that hasnt happened yet and may never happen, it typically is in the subjunctive mood. In a sense, these phrases are used in making negative conditions, or the opposite of si or if. In other words, these phrases are used to indicate that if a certain event (the one specified by a verb in the subjunctive mood) does not occur, then another event (using a verb in the indicative mood) will (or would, if the conditional tense is used). Here are some examples using a menos que: A menos que tengas pasià ³n en lo que haces, no vas a ser feliz. Unless you have passion about what youre doing, youre not going to be happy. No aprobars a menos que estudies mucho. You wont pass unless you study a lot. A menos que el mundo despierte, la humanidad no tiene futuro. Unless the world wakes up, humanity doesnt have a future. Generalmente no tengo problema a menos que coma alguna comida picante. Generally I dont have a problem unless I eat spicy food. A menos que estuviera muy enojado, llorarà ­a. Unless I were very angry, I would cry. No podemos tener salud a menos que bebamos unos ocho vasos de agua al dà ­a. We cant be healthy unless we drink some eight glasses of water a day. A no ser que is used in the same way and is nearly always interchangeable with a menos que: Va a ser difà ­cil, a no ser que nieve bastante. Its going to be difficult, unless it snows enough. La vida no es buena a no ser que uno tenga dinero. Life isnt good unless one has money. No tendremos à ©xito a no ser que tengamos una visià ³n global. We wont have success unless we have a global vision. La vida no es aceptable a no ser que el cuerpo y el espà ­ritu vivan en armonà ­a. Life isnt acceptable unless the body and spirit live in harmony. These phrases can also be used along with commands instead of a verb in the indicative in the independent clause: No lo haga a menos que comprenda todos los riesgos. Dont do it unless you understand all the risks. Cà ³mpralo, a no ser que tengas dudas. Buy it, unless you have doubts. Spanish also has several other less common phrases that have much the same meaning, as shown in boldface in the sentences below: Un cuerpo permanecer en un estado de reposo o de movimiento uniforme, a menos de que una fuerza externa actà ºe sobre à ©l. A body will remain in a state of rest or steady motion, unless an external force acts on it. Se recomienda no utilizarlo a reserva de que sea claramente necesario. Using it is not recommended unless it is clearly necessary. De no ser que lleves ya una dieta muy bien equilibrada, ser mejor que sigas estes consejos. Unless you follow a very balanced diet, it will be better if you follow this advice. Llegaremos a las nueve salvo que el autobà ºs se retrase. We will arrive at 9 unless the bus is late.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Short answer Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Short answer - Assignment Example very important to study cultural variations in the prevalent pressures of globalization and how the changing dynamics of the world are impacting culture. I have a Chinese friend, whose mother scolds him frequently and he listens quietly, that lies in contrast with the way I am and I feel it is the cultural difference between the two of us that makes him revere elders comparatively more. Generalized reciprocity refers to giving something such as a gift to someone without expecting a gift in return. Balanced reciprocity on the other hand refers to giving someone a gift while having the expectation of a return gift which may not necessarily be of the same value. While the first two forms of reciprocity have relationship building as a goal, negative reciprocity is largely motivated by self-interest. It refers to exchange of things with the expectation of gaining personally by the exchange (Uhl-Bien & Maslyn, 2003). Since anthropology deals with studying human interactions, studying reciprocity becomes an imperative. When I was a child I used to give my friends gifts on their birthdays with the expectation of getting return gifts on my birthday, which can be an example of balanced reciprocity. Over the years the family structures have evolved from extended to nuclear families, particularly in the Asian countries. In an extended family system property and income is joint in a family comprising of brothers, sisters, parents who may choose to live together under a roof or separately. In the nuclear family structure a man lives alone with his wife and children with no shared income and property with the rest of his family (Bahadur & Dhawan, 2008). Since the study of anthropology entails studying the changing social and cultural landscape, thus studying the family structures is but a part of anthropology. My Chinese friend told me that in China there exists an extended family system where all members of a family live together which seems so different than how families in

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Draft spatial framework for Perth and Peel Case Study

Draft spatial framework for Perth and Peel - Case Study Example According to John Day, Western Australian Minister of Planning, â€Å"Directions 2031 reconfirms the themes identified in previous strategic plans, which were to better use existing infrastructure and provide for a more sustainable city.† Sustainability is defined as meeting the triple bottom-line of economic growth, environmental health and quality of life. This more sustainable city will require â€Å"328,000 more dwellings to accommodate an additional 556,000 residents† as the population rises from 1.66 million to 2.2 million by 2031, Day writes. The region of Perth and Peel will have to grow in population while also becoming more compact and more sustainable. Gary Prattley, Chairman of the Western Australian Planning Commission says, â€Å"its purpose is to spatially define how we think the city should grow, identify structural changes necessary to support that growth, and identify planning and policy priorities for implementation.† The draft spatial framework is to include a concept of how we think the city should grow, the policies and plans to support that growth, and practical steps toward implementation. Prattleys Vision Statement contains a precise outline of the history of urban planning in the Perth and Peel Region. â€Å"Western Australia has an enviable history of metropolitan planning starting with the adoption of the Stephenson-Hepburn plan in 1955. The Corridor Plan followed in 1970, Metroplan in 1990 and Network City in 2004.† These first three urban planning documents â€Å"focused primarily on the identification of new urban growth areas to cope with rapid population expansion,† according to Directions 2031. They were from the era of suburbanisation and urban sprawl. They tried to guide the growth of the urban and suburban area. However, beginning with the Network City plan in 2004 a major shift in urban planning emerged. The Network City document is subtitled, A Milestone

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Ethical Use of Tecnology in a Mordern Society Essay Example for Free

Ethical Use of Tecnology in a Mordern Society Essay As a result, there are more opportunities than ever for millions of individuals to engage with information technology in an unethical manner. This is why it is essential for the education systems and businesses to address the ethical concerns of information technology usage and to develop a practical code of ethics to prevent, or at least mitigate ,ethical dilemmas and infractions. In today’s organizations, ethical challenges relate to areas like fraud, right to privacy for consumers, social responsibility, and trade restrictions. For Information Technology (IT) specifically, these can translate to considerations on how technology is used to violate people’s privacy, how automation leads to job reductions, or how management information and its corresponding systems are used and abused for personal gain. I n the last 25 years, we have seen an overwhelming technology infusion affecting business, education, and society. Virtually all areas of our society have been transformed by the usage of technology. The change is important from an ethical perspective in terms of whose Information Technology (IT) workers are today and what their tasks are. In the 1980s, IT workers were mainly limited to technical fields, such as programming, data processing, server administration, and phone services. Today, IT workers are integrated into every department of organizations, they function globally, and they have access to a wealth of knowledge and information (Payne Landry, 2006). With the power and skills to access such large amounts of data comes with the need for ethical employees. The computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CSPR) web site provides us food for thought when they state â€Å"Technology is driving the future, the steering is up to us†¦. nd we need every hand at the wheel† (Computer Professionals For Social Responsibility, 2007). So how do we prepare for taking the wheel as an individual working with Information Technology (IT) or Information Systems (IS)? A broader view of social responsibility is coming into focus; it is one that incorporates some real Information Technology (IT) flash points. Issues that have long been concerns of corporate technology managers, including security, privacy, and intellectual property, are increasingly understood as matters of ethics and good citizenship. This perspective is far from universal. The research of CIO (Chief Information Officer), a leading information technology trade journal, shows that while IT managers are very aware of â€Å"the larger effect of technology on people’s lives,† nearly half those surveyed say IT pros are â€Å"not very concerned† about it (Cones, 2008). This more global understanding of technology’s powerful role in society is not new. Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, an organization which deals with related issues, was founded in 1983. Much has been written on technology’s impact on the way we live and work, including musings on the moral aspects of a wired society. But the sense that these issues encompass the day-to-day operations of corporate IT appears to be gaining popularity. According to Donald Amoroso, chair of the computer science and information systems department at Kennesaw State University in Georgia, it is a piece of the maturing of information technology. As the job becomes less about the technology itself and more about the information Age, the definition of responsible corporate citizenship changes too. Social responsibility has to do with being a good person in different parts of the community,† Amoroso says. It determines how you will function and do your job in a societal sense, not just as part of the community you do philanthropy with† (Cone, 2008). At the 2007 conference of the Information

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Huck Finn Essay -- essays research papers fc

Huckleberry Finn   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is one of the greatest, most daring novels in the world. Mark Twain’s style helps to realistically portray early America. Mark Twain tells the story through the voice of Huck, the very kindhearted main character. Everything that Huck says reflects the racism and black stereotypes typical of the era. This has lead to many conflicts from readers since the novel was first printed. However, the story has inspired some. James W. Tuttleton says in an article he wrote that â€Å"Huck Finn is regularly denounced as racist trash† (The San Francisco Chronicle [1885] 6) . Yet, again to oppose that is a quote by a reader, â€Å"Anyone who is offended by this book is obviously ignorant of the true purpose of this book (which does not show slavery to be right, I might add) and perhaps should find out a little more about it than what OTHERS have told them.† (Soapbox [Shumway.2000] ). The author does use the word ‘nigg er’ a lot, he says it to the slave Jim and also to any other blacks that he sees as insulting or of 2 poor standard. Huckleberry Finn still stands as a powerful representation of experience through the brand new eyes of an innocent boy. The only way Huck knows to treat the African American culture is the way he was taught and raised. This is how he treats the African Americans in the story. Twain’s literary style in capturing the novel, Huck’s casual attitude and truthful p...

Monday, November 11, 2019

Mauryan Empire

SYLLABUS OF FIRST PAPER OF TET Paper II (for classes VI to VIII) Elementary Stage: 30 Questions I. Child Development and Pedagogy 15 Questions a) Child Development (Elementary School Child) †¢ Concept of development and its relationship with learning †¢ Principles of the development of children †¢ Influence of Heredity & Environment †¢ Socialization processes: Social world & children (Teacher, Parents, Peers) †¢ Piaget, Kohlberg and Vygotsky: constructs and critical perspectives †¢ Concepts of child-centered and progressive education †¢ Critical perspective of the construct of Intelligence Multi Dimensional Intelligence †¢ Language & Thought †¢ Gender as a social construct; gender roles, gender-bias and educational practice †¢ Individual differences among learners, understanding differences based on diversity of language, caste, gender, community, religion etc. †¢ Distinction between Assessment for learning and assessment of lear ning; SchoolBased Assessment, Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation: perspective and practice †¢ Formulating appropriate questions for assessing readiness levels of learners; for enhancing learning and critical thinking in the classroom and or assessing learner achievement. b) Concept of Inclusive education and understanding children with special needs 5 Questions †¢ Addressing learners from diverse backgrounds including disadvantaged and deprived †¢ Addressing the needs of children with learning difficulties, ‘impairment’ etc †¢ Addressing the Talented, Creative, Specially abled Learners c) Learning and Pedagogy 10 Questions †¢ How children think and learn; how and why children ‘fail’ to achieve success in school performance †¢ Basic processes of teaching and learning; children’s strategies of learning; learning as social activity; social context of learning. †¢ Child as a problem solver and a ‘scientific inv estigator’ Alternative conceptions of learning in children; understanding children’s ‘errors’ as significant steps in the learning process. †¢ Cognition & Emotions †¢ Motivation and learning †¢ Factors contributing to learning personal & environmental II. Language I. 30 Questions a) Language Comprehension 15 Questions Reading unseen passages- two passages one prose or drama and one poem with questions on comprehension, inference, grammar and verbal ability (Prose passage may e literary, scientific, narrative or discursive) b) Pedagogy of Language Development 15 Questions †¢ Learning and acquisition †¢ Principles of language Teaching †¢ Role of listening and speaking; function of language and how children use it as a tool †¢ Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating ideas verbally and in written form; †¢ Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficu lties, errors and disorders †¢ Language Skills †¢ Evaluating language comprehension and proficiency: speaking, listening, reading and writing Teaching-learning materials: Textbook, multi-media materials, multilingual resource of the classroom †¢ Remedial Teaching III. Language- II 30 Questions a)Comprehension 15 Questions Two unseen prose passages (discursive or literary or narrative or scientific) with questions on comprehension, grammar and verbal ability b) Pedagogy of Language Development 15 Questions †¢ Learning and acquisition †¢ Principles of language Teaching †¢ Role of listening and speaking; function of language and how children use it as a tool †¢ Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating deas verbally and in written form; †¢ Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficulties, errors and disorders †¢ Language Skills †¢ Evaluating language comprehension a nd proficiency: speaking, listening, reading and writing †¢ Teaching-learning materials: Textbook, multi-media materials, multilingual resource of the classroom †¢ Remedial Teaching ____________________________________________________________ _____ SECTION 2 Section-I CHILD DEVELPOMENT AND PEDAGOGY 1. Raja, a student of your class, is very tense due to the acne on his face. What will u do? (1) Ignore him. 2) Tell him that it is normal and is due to hormonal changes. (3) Tell him to go to a doctor as it is a medical problem. (4) Scold and tell him not to waste time on these issues. 2. A student wants to share his personal problems and asks for permission to call on u at your residence. What should be your response? (1) Avoid giving time. (2) Give an appointment readily. (3) Tell him that u do not encourage students to visit at the residence. (4) Ignore the child. 3. If you come to know that a child of your class is facing problems related to parents’ separation at ho me, what would you do? 1) Do not talk to the child on this issue. (2) Treat her/him sympathetically. (3) Talk to the parents. (4) Be indifferent to the child. 4. If you come to know that the father of a student has been tested HIV positive, what will you do? (1) Disclose the information to the class. (2) Make the child sit separately. (3) Ask the parents to withdraw the child. (4) Let him continue with the studies like others. 5. Kavya a student of your class, is visually challenged and you have a function coming up. What will you do? (1) Give her the part of a narrator. 2) Ask her to stay at home during the function. (3) Discourage her from participating. (4) Give her a less important duty. 6. Manjusha is very interested in sports and wants to pursue her career in sports. What will you suggest to her? (1) Girls have no future in sports. (2) She should put in hard work to achieve her ambition. (3) Ask her to be focused only in academics. (4) Girls cannot excel in sports as they are not physically strong. 7. Twelve year old Radhika has begun to imitate the style of talking of her teacher. This form of behavior is known as- (1) compensation (2) transference (3) sublimation (4) egocentrism 8. For conducting a social science class in an interesting way, teachers should- (1) give notes (2) give written homework (3) use role-plays effectively (4) encourage extra reading 9. A 11-12 year old child generally faces more problems related to- (1) eye hand coordination (2) anxiety about studies. (3) need for peer approval (4) understanding mathematics. 10. Which of the following is most essential for learning? (1) Good parent child relationship (2) High intelligence (3) Good school (4) Desire to learn 11. Which of the following is not good for quality learning? (1) Making notes (3) Extra reading (3) Using guide books (4) Self Study 12. Which of the following may damage a low achieving student psychologically? (1) Making children maintain record of the class test marks. (2) Discussing the marks of individual students in the class. (3) Discussing the correct answers in the class. 4) Making children correct their own notebooks. 13. When most of the students in a class do not understand a concept clearly, the teacher should- (1) repeat the lesson once again. (2) conduct hands on activities on that concept. (3) Ask students to take help from parents. (4) ignore and move to the next concept. 14. To correct the stammering problem of a class VIII student, a teacher should (1) ignore the child. (2) provide more opportunities for speaking. (3) c heck the child whenever she/he stammers. (4) seek professional help. 15. Which of the following statements about the role of a teacher is correct? 1) Teacher should be a critic only. (2) Teacher should favour good students. (3) Teacher should have a friendly attitude towards students. (4) Teacher should maintain a distance from students. 16. For ensuring and improving class discipline, the teacher should- (1) arrange regular parent- teacher meetings. (2) Call authorities to the class. (3) be strict with students and punish them. (4) evaluate the methods and approaches used in the class. 17. To address the diversity in academic achievement, an effective teaching method can be – (1) dictating notes (2) cooperative teaching. 3) lecturing (4)giving tests. 18. In which stage of cognitive development is a child, when she/he is able to work out problems logically and can do multiple classification? (1) Pre operational stage (2) Formal operational stage (3) Concrete operation stage ( 4) Sensori-motor stage 19. Gaurav of class VII gave a letter to his classmate Seema saying that he loves her. What should the teacher do? (1) Ignore the issue (2) Punish Gaurav (3) Counsel Gaurav appropriately (4) Let the Principal handle the issue 20. Children from the under privileged sections of the society can benefit more if they are (1) provided with training for self employment (2) exempted from homework and class tests. (3) provided with richer learning environment in school. (4) given simpler learning tasks. 21. Students in classes VII-VIII face problems mostly related to (1) identity crisis. (2) emotional sensitivity. (3) low interest in academic. (4) hyperactivity. 22. The term comprehensive evaluation implies- (1) evaluation conducted at several points of time. (2) evaluation by a group of teachers. (3) Several tests for long hours. 4) evaluation of scholastic and Co-scholastic aspects of pupil growth. 23. Talking to children of classes VI to VIII about â€Å"Growing up† is – (1) not required (2) essential. (3) counterproductive (4) detrimental 24. Which of the following statements about teaching is true? (1) Teaching is a prerequisite of learning. (2) Teaching facilitates learning. (3) Teaching restricts initiative of learners. (4) Teaching is necessary for good learning. 25. Sandhya and Mamta of class VII are bright students but are extremely jealous of each other. How will you, as a teacher, handle them? 1) Not bother as they will outgrow it. (2) Talk to them discreetly about healthy competition. (3) Discuss this with the whole class. (4) Convey your disapproval to them. 26. In a class, a student asks the teacher a question and the answer is not known to the teacher. As a teacher you should- (1) scold the child for asking such questions. (2) ignore the child and continue teaching. (3) tell the child that you will look for the answer. (4) feel ashamed that you did not known the answer. 27. A student who had misbehaved with the teacher in class VI, comes to the same teacher in class VIII. S/He avoids interacting with the teacher due to his/ her behavior. The teacher should (1) ignore the child. (2) remind the child of her/his past behaviour. (3) reassure her/him in a personal discussion. (4) call the parents and report the incidence. 28. Raju, a student of your class, is being teased by his classmates for his dark complexion. What do you need to do as a teacher? (1) Ignore this issue (2) Reprimand the class. (3) Tell Raju not to pay attention. (4) Talk to the class about individual differences. 29. Salim is very good in music but is not able to do well in Mathematics. As a teacher of Mathematics, how will you handle Salim? (1) Tell him that Music does not have a future. (2) Tell him to leave Music and study Maths. (3) Call his parents and talk to them. (4) Tell him that he can do well and explain the concepts to him. 30. While teaching if you realize that what you have taught is not correct, you should- (1) leave the topic unfinished and shift to another. (2) Tell the students that it was a mistake and correct it. (3) divert the attention of the students. (4) Scold students to finish the remaining tasks. Mauryan Empire The  Maurya Empire  was a  geographically extensive  Iron Age  historical power  in  ancient India, ruled by the  Mauryan dynasty  from 321 to 185 BC. Originating from the kingdom of  Magadha  in the  Indo-Gangetic plains  (modern  Bihar, eastern  Uttar Pradesh  and  Bengal) in the eastern side of theIndian subcontinent, the empire had its capital city at  Pataliputra  (modern  Patna). The Empire was founded in 322 BC by  Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the  Nanda Dynasty  and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western  India  taking advantage of the disruptions of local  powers  in the wake of the withdrawal westward by  Alexander the Great's Greek and Persian armies. By 320 BC the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the  satraps  left by Alexander. With an area of 5,000,000 sq km, it was one of the world's  largest empires  in its time, and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent. At its greatest extent, the empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the  Himalayas, and to the east stretching into what is nowAssam. To the west, it conquered beyond modern  Pakistan, annexing  Balochistan, south eastern parts of  Iran  and much of what is nowAfghanistan, including the modern  Herat and  Kandahar  provinces. The Empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and  Bindusara, but it excluded a small portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near  Kalinga  (modern  Orissa), till it was conquered by  Ashoka. Its decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended, and it dissolved in 185 BC with the foundation of the  Sunga Dynasty  in Magadha. Under  Chandragupta, the Mauryan Empire conquered the trans-Indus  region, which was under Macedonian rule. Chandragupta then defeated the invasion led by  Seleucus I, a Greek general from Alexander's army. Under Chandragupta and his successors, internal and external trade, agriculture and economic activities, all thrived and expanded across India thanks to the creation of a single and efficient system of finance, administration, and security. After the  Kalinga War, the Empire experienced half a century of peace and security under Ashoka. Mauryan India also enjoyed an era of social harmony, religious transformation, and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge. Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of  Jainism  increased social and religious renewal and reform across his society, while Ashoka's embrace of  Buddhism  has been said to have been the foundation of the reign of social and political peace and non-violence across all of India. Ashoka sponsored the spreading of Buddhist ideals into  Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, West Asia and Mediterranean Europe. The population of the empire has been estimated to be about 50-60 million making the Mauryan Empire one of the most populous empires of the time. Archaeologically, the period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of  Northern Black Polished Ware  (NBPW). The  Arthashastra  and theEdicts of Ashoka  are the primary sources of written records of Mauryan times. The  Lion Capital of Asoka  at  Sarnath, has been made the nationalemblem  of India. Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya A symbolic statue of young Chandragupta Maurya, In the courtyard of  Indian Parliament, with the inscription, â€Å"Shepherd boy-Chandragupta Maurya dreaming of India he was to create†. Main articles:  Chanakya  and  Chandragupta Maurya A  Hindu  brahmin  named  Chanakya  (real name Vishnugupta, also known as Kautilya) traveled to  Magadha, a kingdom that was large and militarily powerful and feared by its neighbors, but was dismissed by its king  Dhana Nanda, of the  Nanda Dynasty. Meanwhile, the conquering armies of  Alexander the Great  refused to cross the  Beas Riverand advance further eastward, deterred by the prospect of battling Magadha. Alexander returned to  Babylon  and re-deployed most of his troops west of the  Indus  river. Soon after Alexander died in  Babylon  in  323 BCE, his empire fragmented, and local kings declared their independence, leaving several smaller disunited satraps. Chandragupta Maurya deposed Dhana Nanda. The Greek generals  Eudemus, and  Peithon, ruled until around  316 BCE, when Chandragupta Maurya (with the help of Chanakya, who was now his advisor) utterly defeated the Macedonians and consolidated the region under the control of his new seat of power in Magadha. Chandragupta maurya rise to power is shrouded in mystery and controversy. On the one hand, a number of ancient Indian accounts, such as the drama  Mudrarakshasa(Poem of Rakshasa  Ã¢â‚¬â€œÃ‚  Rakshasa  was the prime minister of Magadha) by Visakhadatta, describe his royal ancestry and even link him with the Nanda family. A  kshatriya  tribe known as the  Maurya's are referred to in the earliest Buddhist texts,  Mahaparinibbana Sutta. However, any conclusions are hard to make without further historical evidence. Chandragupta first emerges in Greek accounts as â€Å"Sandrokottos†. As a young man he is said to have met Alexander. He is also said to have met the Nanda king, angered him, and made a narrow escape. Chanakya's original intentions were to train a guerilla army under Chandragupta's command. The Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutta as well as the Jaina work Parisishtaparvan talk of Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka, sometimes identified with Porus . Conquest of Magadha Main articles:  Chandragupta Maurya,  Nanda Dynasty, and  Magadha Chanakya encouraged Chandragupta Maurya and his army to take over the throne of Magadha. Using his intelligence network, Chandragupta gathered many young men from across Magadha and other provinces, men upset over the corrupt and oppressive rule of king Dhana, plus resources necessary for his army to fight a long series of battles. These men included the former general of Taxila, other accomplished students of Chanakya, the representative of King Porus of Kakayee, his son Malayketu, and the rulers of small states. Preparing to invade Pataliputra, Maurya hatched a plan. A battle was announced and the Magadhan army was drawn from the city to a distant battlefield to engage Maurya's forces. Maurya's general and spies meanwhile bribed the corrupt general of Nanda. He also managed to create an atmosphere of civil war in the kingdom, which culminated in the death of the heir to the throne. Chanakya managed to win over popular sentiment. Ultimately Nanda resigned, handing power to Chandragupta, and went into exile and was never heard of again. Chanakya contacted the prime minister, Rakshasas, and made him understand that his loyalty was to Magadha, not to the Magadha dynasty, insisting that he continue in office. Chanakya also reiterated that choosing to resist would start a war that would severely affect Magadha and destroy the city. Rakshasa accepted Chanakya's reasoning, and Chandragupta Maurya was legitimately installed as the new King of Magadha. Rakshasa became Chandragupta's chief advisor, and Chanakya assumed the position of an elder statesman. ————————————————- Chandragupta Maurya when  Seleucus I, ruler of the  Seleucid Empire, tried to reconquer the northwestern parts of India, during a campaign in 305 BCE, but failed. The two rulers finally concluded a peace treaty: a marital treaty (Epigamia) was concluded, in which the Greeks offered their Princess for alliance and help from him. Chandragupta snatched the satrapies of  Paropamisade  (Kamboja  and  Gandhara),  Arachosia(Kandhahar) and  Gedrosia  (Balochistan), and  Seleucus I  received 500  war elephants  that were to have a decisive role in his victory against westernHellenistic  kings at the  Battle of Ipsus  in 301 BCE. Diplomatic relations were established and several Greeks, such as the historian  Megasthenes,Deimakos  and  Dionysius  resided at the Mauryan court. Chandragupta established a strong centralized state with a complex administration at Pataliputra, which, according to Megasthenes, was†surrounded by a wooden wall pierced by 64 gates and 570 towers— (and) rivaled the splendors of contemporaneous  Persian  sites such as  Susaand  Ecbatana. †Ã‚  Chandragupta's son  Bindusara  extended the rule of the Mauryan empire towards southern India. He also had a Greek ambassador at his court, named  Deimachus  (Strabo  1–70). Megasthenes describes a disciplined multitude under Chandragupta, who live simply, honestly, and do not know writing: † The Indians all live frugally, especially when in camp. They dislike a great undisciplined multitude, and consequently they observe good order. Theft is of very rare occurrence. Megasthenes says that those who were in the camp of Sandrakottos, wherein lay 400,000 men, found that the thefts reported on any one day did not exceed the value of two hundred drachmae, and this among a people who have no written laws, but are ignorant of writing, and must therefore in all the business of life trust to memory. They live, nevertheless, happily enough, being simple in their manners and frugal. They never drink wine except at sacrifices. Their beverage is a liquor composed from rice instead of barley, and their food is principally a rice-pottage. ————————————————- ————————————————- Ahoka the Great Chandragupta's grandson i. e. , Bindusara's son was Ashokavardhan Maurya, also known as Ashoka or Ashoka The Great (ruled 273- 232 BCE). As a young prince, Ashoka was a brilliant commander who crushed revolts in Ujjain and Taxila. As monarch he was ambitious and aggressive, re-asserting the Empire's superiority in southern and western India. But it was his conquest of  Kalinga  which proved to be the pivotal event of his life. Although Ashoka's army succeeded in overwhelming Kalinga forces of royal soldiers and civilian units, an estimated 100,000 soldiers and civilians were killed in the furious warfare, including over 10,000 of Ashoka's own men. Hundreds of thousands of people were adversely affected by the destruction and fallout of war. When he personally witnessed the devastation, Ashoka began feeling remorse, and he cried ‘what have I done? ‘. Although the annexation of Kalinga was completed, Ashoka embraced the teachings of  Gautama Buddha, and renounced war and violence. For a monarch in ancient times, this was an historic feat. Ashoka implemented principles of  ahimsa  by banning hunting and violent sports activity and ending indentured and forced labor (many thousands of people in war-ravaged Kalinga had been forced into hard labor and servitude). While he maintained a large and powerful army, to keep the peace and maintain authority, Ashoka expanded friendly relations with states across Asia and Europe, and he sponsored Buddhist missions. He undertook a massive public works building campaign across the country. Over 40 years of peace, harmony and prosperity made Ashoka one of the most successful and famous monarchs in Indian history. He remains an idealized figure of inspiration in modern India. The  Edicts of Ashoka, set in stone, are found throughout the Subcontinent. Ranging from as far west as  Afghanistan  and as far south as Andhra (Nellore District), Ashoka's edicts state his policies and accomplishments. Although predominantly written in Prakrit, two of them were written in  Greek, and one in both Greek and  Aramaic. Ashoka's edicts refer to the Greeks,  Kambojas, and Gandharas  as peoples forming a frontier region of his empire. They also attest to Ashoka's having sent envoys to the Greek rulers in the West as far as the Mediterranean. The edicts precisely name each of the rulers of the  Hellenic  world at the time such as  Amtiyoko  (Antiochus),  Tulamaya  (Ptolemy),  Amtikini  (Antigonos),  Maka  (Magas) and  Alikasudaro  (Alexander) as recipients of Ashoka's proselytism. The Edicts also accurately locate their territory â€Å"600 yojanas away† (a yojanas being about 7 miles), corresponding to the distance between the center of India and Greece (roughly 4,000 miles). [14] ————————————————- Administration Mauryan ringstone, with standing goddess. Northwest Pakistan. 3rd century BCE. British Museum. The Empire was divided into four provinces, which one of the four, look like a giant crescents. with the imperial capital at  Pataliputra. From Ashokan edicts, the names of the four provincial capitals are  Tosali  (in the east),  Ujjain  in the west,  Suvarnagiri  (in the south), and  Taxila  (in the north). The head of the provincial administration was the  Kumara  (royal prince), who governed the provinces as king's representative. The  kumara  was assisted by Mahamatyas and council of ministers. This organizational structure was reflected at the imperial level with the Emperor and his  Mantriparishad  (Council of Ministers). Historians theorize that the organization of the Empire was in line with the extensive bureaucracy described by  Kautilya  in the  Arthashastra: a sophisticated civil service governed everything from municipal hygiene to international trade. The expansion and defense of the empire was made possible by what appears to have been the largest standing army of its time†¦. According to Megasthenes, the empire wielded a military of 600,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 war elephants. A vast  espionage  system collected intelligence for both internal and external security purposes. Having renounced offensive warfare and expansionism, Ashoka nevertheless continued to maintain this large army, to protect the Empire and instill stability and peace across West and South Asia Economy Silver punch mark coin of the  Mauryan empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE. For the first time in South Asia, political unity and military security allowed for a common economic system and enhanced trade and commerce, with increased agricultural productivity. The previous situation involving hundreds of kingdoms, many small armies, powerful regional chieftains, and internecine warfare, gave way to a disciplined central authority. Farmers were freed of tax and crop collection burdens from regional kings, paying instead to a nationally administered and strict-but-fair system of taxation as advised by the principles in the  Arthashastra. Chandragupta Maurya established a single currency across India, and a network of regional governors and administrators and a civil service provided justice and security for merchants, farmers and traders. The Mauryan army wiped out many gangs of bandits, regional private armies, and powerful chieftains who sought to impose their own supremacy in small areas. Although regimental in revenue collection, Maurya also sponsored many public works and waterways to enhance productivity, while internal trade in India expanded greatly due to newfound political unity and internal peace. Mauryan cast copper coin. Late 3rd century BCE. British Museum. Under the Indo-Greek friendship treaty, and during Ashoka's reign, an international network of trade expanded. The  Khyber Pass, on the modern boundary ofPakistan  and  Afghanistan, became a strategically important port of trade and intercourse with the outside world. Greek states and Hellenic kingdoms in West Asia became important trade partners of India. Trade also extended through the  Malay peninsula  into Southeast Asia. India's exports included silk goods and textiles, spices and exotic foods. The Empire was enriched further with an exchange of scientific knowledge and technology with Europe and West Asia. Ashoka also sponsored the construction of thousands of roads, waterways, canals, hospitals, rest-houses and other public works. The easing of many over-rigorous administrative practices, including those regarding taxation and crop collection, helped increase productivity and economic activity across the Empire. In many ways, the economic situation in the Mauryan Empire is analogous to the Roman Empire of several centuries later. Both had extensive trade connections and both had organizations similar to  corporations. While Rome had organizational entities which were largely used for public state-driven projects, Mauryan India had numerous private commercial entities. These existed purely for private commerce and developed before the Mauryan Empire itself. The Economic History of the Corporate Form in Ancient India. University of Michigan. ————————————————- ————————————————- Religion Balarama, holding mace and conch (lower right) on a Maurya coin. Balarama was originally a powerful independent deity of Hinduism, and was considered an avatar of  Vishnu. 3rd–2nd century CE. British Museum. Buddhist  stupas  during the Mauryan period were simple mounds without decorations. Butkara stupa, 3rd century BCE. Buddhist  proselytism  at the time of kingAshoka  (260–218 BCE). Mauryan architecture in the  Barabar Mounts. Grottoe of Lomas Richi. 3rd century BCE. Hinduism Hinduism  was the only religion at the time of inception of the empire, Hindu priests and ministers use to be an important part of the emperor's court, like  Chanakya  also known as  Vishnu Gupt. Ajivikas, an  ascetic  Hindu movement was also practiced, Bhattotpala, in 950 A. D. identified them with the â€Å"Ekandandins† writes that they are devotees of Narayana (Vishnu), although Shilanka speaking of the Ekandandins in another connection identifies them as Shaivas (devotees of  Shiva). Scholar James Hastings identifies the name â€Å"Mankhaliputta† or â€Å"Mankhali† with the  bamboo staff. Scholar Jitendra N. Banerjea compares them to the  Pasupatas  Shaivas. It is believed by scholar Charpentier that the Ajivikas before Makkhali Goshala worshiped Shiva. Chanakya wrote in his text  Chanakya Niti, â€Å"Humbly bowing down before the almighty Lord Sri Vishnu, the Lord of the three worlds, I recite maxims of the science of political ethics (niti) selected from the various satras (scriptures)† Even after embracing Buddhism, Ashoka retained the membership of Hindu Brahmana priests and ministers in his court. Mauryan society began embracing the philosophy of  ahimsa, and given the increased prosperity and improved law enforcement, crime and internal conflicts reduced dramatically. Also greatly discouraged was the  caste system  and orthodox discrimination, as Mauryans began to absorb the ideals and values of Jain and Buddhist teachings along with traditional  Vedic Hindu  teachings. Buddhism Ashoka initially practiced Hinduism but later embraced  Buddhism, following the  Kalinga War, he renounced expansionism and aggression, and the harsher injunctions of the  Arthashastra  on the use of force, intensive policing, and ruthless measures for tax collection and against rebels. Ashoka sent a mission led by his son  Mahinda  and daughter  Sanghamitta  to  Sri Lanka, whose king  Tissa  was so charmed with Buddhist ideals that he adopted them himself and made Buddhism the state religion. Ashoka sent many Buddhist missions o  West Asia,  Greece  and  South East Asia, and commissioned the construction of monasteries, schools and publication of Buddhist literature across the empire. He is believed to have built as many as 84,000 stupas across India i. e. Sanchi  and  Mahabodhi Temple, and he increased the popularity of Buddhism in  Afghanistan,  Thailand  and  North Asia  including  Siberia. Ashoka helped convene the  Third Buddhist Council  of India and South Asia's Buddhist orders, near his capital, a council that undertook much work of reform and expansion of the Buddhist religion. Jainism Emperor Chandragupta Maurya embraced  Jainism  after retiring. At an older age, Chandragupta renounced his throne and material possessions to join a wandering group of Jain monks. Chandragupta was a disciple of  Acharya Bhadrabahu. It is said that in his last days, he observed the rigorous but self purifying  Jain  ritual of  santhara  i. e. fast unto death, at  Shravana Belagola  in  Karnataka. However, his successor, Emperor Bindusara, was a follower of a Hindu ascetic movement,  Ajivika  and distanced himself from Jain and Buddhist movements. Samprati, the grandson of  Ashoka  also embraced  Jainism. Samrat Samprati was influenced by the teachings of Jain monk  Arya Suhasti Suri  and he is known to have built 125,000  Jain Temples  across India. Some of them are still found in towns of Ahmedabad, Viramgam, Ujjain & Palitana. It is also said that just like Ashoka, Samprati sent messengers & preachers to Greece, Persia & middle-east for the spread of Jainism. But to date no research has been done in this area. Thus, Jainism became a vital force under the Mauryan Rule. Chandragupta  &  Samprati  are credited for the spread of  Jainism  in  Southern India. Lakhs of  Jain Temples  &  Jain Stupas  were erected during their reign. But due to lack of royal patronage & its strict principles, along with the rise of  Shankaracharya  &  Ramanujacharya,  Jainism, once the major religion of southern India, began to decline. Architectural remains Architectural remains of the Maurya period are rather few. Remains of a  hypostyle  building with about 80 columns of a height of about 10 meters have been found in  Kumhrar, 5  km from  Patna  Railway station, and is one of the very few sites that has been connected to the rule of the Mauryas. The style is rather reminiscent of Persian Achaemenid architecture. The grottoes of  Barabar Caves, are another example of Mauryan architecture, especially the decorated front of the Lomas Rishi grotto. These were offered by the Mauryas to the Buddhist sect of the  Ajivikas. The most widespread example of Maurya architecture are the  Pillars of Ashoka, often exquisitely decorated, with more than 40 spread throughout the sub-continent. ————————————————- ————————————————- Natural history in the times of the Mauryas The protection of animals in India became serious business by the time of the Maurya dynasty; being the first empire to provide a unified political entity in India, the attitude of the Mauryas towards forests, its denizens and fauna in general is of interest. The Mauryas firstly looked at forests as a resource. For them, the most important forest product was the elephant. Military might in those times depended not only upon horses and men but also battle-elephants; these played a role in the defeat of  Seleucus,  Alexander's governor of the Punjab[. The Mauryas sought to preserve supplies of elephants since it was cheaper and took less time to catch, tame and train wild elephants than to raise them. Kautilya'sArthashastra  contains not only maxims on ancient statecraft, but also unambiguously specifies the responsibilities of officials such as the  Protector of the Elephant Forests: On the border of the forest, he should establish a forest for elephants guarded by foresters. The Office of the Chief Elephant Forrester should with the help of guards protect the elephants in any terrain. The slaying of an elephant is punishable by death.. —Arthashastra The Mauryas also designated separate forests to protect supplies of timber, as well as lions and tigers, for skins. Elsewhere the  Protector of Animals  also worked to eliminate thieves, tigers and other predators to render the woods safe for grazing cattle. The Mauryas valued certain forest tracts in strategic or economic terms and instituted curbs and control measures over them. They regarded all forest tribes with distrust and controlled them with bribery and political subjugation. They employed some of them, the food-gatherers or  aranyaca  to guard borders and trap animals. The sometimes tense and conflict-ridden relationship nevertheless enabled the Mauryas to guard their vast empire When  Ashoka  embraced  Buddhism  in the latter part of his reign, he brought about significant changes in his style of governance, which included providing protection to fauna, and even relinquished the royal hunt. He was the first ruler in history to advocate conservation measures for wildlife and even had rules inscribed in stone edicts. The edicts proclaim that many followed the king's example in giving up the slaughter of animals; one of them proudly states: Our king killed very few animals. —Edict on Fifth Pillar However, the edicts of Ashoka reflect more the desire of rulers than actual events; the mention of a 100 ‘panas' (coins) fine for poaching deer in royal hunting preserves shows that rule-breakers did exist. The legal restrictions conflicted with the practices freely exercised by the common people in hunting, felling, fishing and setting fires in forests. 24] Foundation of the Empire Relations with the Hellenistic world may have started from the very beginning of the Maurya Empire. Plutarch  reports that Chandragupta Maurya met withAlexander the Great, probably around  Taxila  in the northwest: â€Å"Sandrocottus, when he was a stripling, saw Alexander himself, and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country, since it s king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth†. Reconquest of the Northwest (c. 310 BCE) Chandragupta ultimately occupied Northwestern India, in the territories formerly ruled by the Greeks, where he fought the satraps (described as â€Å"Prefects† in Western sources) left in place after Alexander (Justin), among whom may have been  Eudemus, ruler in the western Punjab until his departure in 317 BCE orPeithon, son of Agenor, ruler of the Greek colonies along the Indus until his departure for  Babylon  in 316 BCE. India, after the death of Alexander, had assassinated his prefects, as if shaking the burden of servitude. The author of this liberation was Sandracottos, but he had transformed liberation in servitude after victory, since, after taking the throne, he himself oppressed the very people he has liberated from foreign domination† Justin XV. 4. 2–13[ â€Å"Later, as he was preparing war against the prefects of Alexander, a huge wild elephant went to him and took him on his back as if tame, and he bec ame a remarkable fighter and war leader. Having thus acquired royal power, Sandracottos possessed India at the time Seleucos was preparing future glory. † Conflict and alliance with Seleucus (305 BCE) Silver coin ofSeleucus I Nicator, who fought Chandragupta Maurya, and later made an alliance with him. Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian  satrap  of the  Asian  portion of Alexander's former empire, conquered and put under his own authority eastern territories as far as Bactria and the Indus (Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55), until in 305 BCE he entered in a confrontation with Chandragupta: â€Å"Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, ‘Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis, Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus†. Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55[28] Though no accounts of the conflict remain, it is clear that Seleucus fared poorly against the Indian Emperor as he failed in conquering any territory, and in fact, was forced to surrender much that was already his. Regardless, Seleucus and Chandragupta ultimately reached a settlement and through a treaty sealed in 305 BCE, Seleucus, according to Strabo, ceded a number of territories to Chandragupta, including southern  Afghanistan  and parts of  Persia. Accordingly, Seleucus obtained five hundred war elephants, a military asset which would play a decisive role at the  Battle of Ipsus  in 301 BCE. Marital alliance It is generally thought that Chandragupta married  Seleucus's  daughter, or a Greek  Macedonian  princess, a gift from Seleucus to formalize an alliance. In a return gesture, Chandragupta sent 500  war-elephants,  a military asset which would play a decisive role at the  Battle of Ipsus  in 302 BC. In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador,  Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, and later  Deimakos  to his son  Bindusara, at the Mauryan court at  Pataliputra  (modern  Patna  in  Bihar state). Later  Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of  Ptolemaic Egypt  and contemporary of  Ashoka the Great, is also recorded by  Pliny the Elder  as having sent an ambassador named  Dionysius  to the Mauryan court. Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast territory west of the Indus, including the  Hindu Kush, modern day  Afghanistan, and the  Balochistan  province of  Pakistan. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the  Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as  Kandhahar  in southern Afghanistan. The treaty on â€Å"Epigamia† implies lawful marriage between Greeks and Indians was recognized at the State level, although it is unclear whether it occurred among dynastic rulers or common people, or both . Exchange of ambassadors Seleucus dispatched an ambassador,  Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, and later  Deimakos  to his son  Bindusara, at the Mauryan court at  Pataliputra  (Modern  Patna  in  Bihar state). Later  Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of  Ptolemaic Egypt  and contemporary of Ashoka, is also recorded by  Pliny the Elder  as having sent an ambassador named  Dionysius  to the  Mauryan  court. Exchange of presents Classical sources have also recorded that following their treaty, Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents, such as when Chandragupta sent various  aphrodisiacs  to Seleucus: â€Å"And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters [as to make people more amorous]. And Phylarchus confirms him, by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus, the king of the Indians, sent to Seleucus; which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection, while some, on the contrary, were to banish love†Athenaeus of Naucratis. His son  Bindusara  Ã¢â‚¬ËœAmitraghata' (Slayer of Enemies) also is recorded in Classical sources as having exchanged present with  Antiochus I: â€Å"But dried figs were so very much sought after by all men (for really, as  Aristophanes  says, â€Å"There's really nothing nicer than dried figs†), that even Amitrochates, the king of the Indians, wrote toAntiochus, entreating him (it is  Hegesander  who tells this story) to buy and send him some sweet wine, and some dried figs, and a  sophist; and that Antiochus wrote to him in answer, â€Å"The dry figs and the sweet wine we will send you; but it is not lawful for a sophist to be sold in Greece†Ã‚  Athenaeus, â€Å"Deipnosophistae† XIV. 67 Greek population in India Greek population apparently remained in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under Ashoka's rule. In his  Edicts of Ashoka, set in stone, some of them written in Greek, Ashoka describes that Greek population within his realm converted to Buddhism: â€Å"Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the  Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the  Andhras  and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in  Dharma†. Rock Edict Nb13  (S. Dhammika). Fragments of Edict 13 have been found in Greek, and a full Edict, written in both Greek and Aramaic has been discovered in  Kandahar. It is said to be written in excellent Classical Greek, using sophisticated philosophical terms. In this Edict, Ashoka uses the word  Eusebeia  (â€Å"Piety†) as the Greek translation for the ubiquitous â€Å"Dharma† of his other Edicts written in  Prakrit: â€Å"Ten years (of reign) having been completed, King Piodasses (Ashoka) made known (the doctrine of) Piety to men; and from this moment he has made men more pious, and everything thrives throughout the whole world. And the king abstains from (killing) living beings, and other men and those who (are) huntsmen and fishermen of the king have desisted from hunting. And if some (were) intemperate, they have ceased from their intemperance as was in their power; and obedient to their father and mother and to the elders, in opposition to the past also in the future, by so acting on every occasion, they will live better and more happily†. Buddhist missions to the West (c. 250 BCE) Front view of the single lion capital inVaishali. Also, in the  Edicts of Ashoka, Ashoka mentions the Hellenistic kings of the period as a recipient of his  Buddhist  proselytism, although no Western historical record of this event remain: â€Å"The conquest by  Dharma  has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred  yojanas  (5,400–9,600 km) away, where the Greek king  Antiochosrules, beyond there where the four kings named  Ptolemy,  Antigonos,  Magas  and  Alexander  rule, likewise in the south among the  Cholas, the  Pandyas, and as far as  Tamraparni  (Sri Lanka). † (Edicts of Ashoka, 13th Rock Edict, S. Dhammika). Ashoka also claims that he encouraged the development of  herbal medicine, for men and animals, in their territories: â€Å"Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's [Ashoka's] domain, and among the people beyond the borders, the  Cholas, the  Pandyas, the Satiyaputras, the Keralaputras, as far as  Tamraparni  and where the Greek king  Antiochos  rules, and among the kings who are neighbors of Antiochos, everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals†. nd Rock Edict The Greeks in India even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhis m, as some of the emissaries of Ashoka, such as  Dharmaraksita, are described in  Pali  sources as leading Greek (â€Å"Yona†) Buddhist monks, active in Buddhist proselytism (the  Mahavamsa, Subhagsena and Antiochos III (206 BCE) Sophagasenus  was an Indian  Mauryan  ruler of the 3rd century BCE, described in ancient Greek sources, and named Subhagsena or Subhashsena in  Prakrit. His name is mentioned in the list of Mauryan princes, and also in the list of the Yadava dynasty, as a descendant of Pradyumna. He may have been a grandson of  Ashoka, or  Kunala, the son of Ashoka. He ruled an area south of the  Hindu Kush, possibly in  Gandhara. Antiochos III, the  Seleucid  king, after having made peace with  Euthydemus  in  Bactria, went to India in 206 BC nd is said to have renewed his friendship with the Indian king there: â€Å"He (Antiochus) crossed the Caucasus and descended into India; renewed his friendship with Sophagasenus the king of t he Indians; received more elephants, until he had a hundred and fifty altogether; and having once more provisioned his troops, set out again personally with his army: leaving Androsthenes of Cyzicus the duty of taking home the treasure which this king had agreed to hand over to him†. Ashoka was followed for 50 years by a succession of weaker kings. Brhadrata, the last ruler of the  Mauryan dynasty, held territories that had shrunk considerably from the time of emperor  Ashoka, although he still upheld the Buddhist faith. Sunga coup (185 BCE) Brihadrata  was assassinated in 185 BCE during a military parade, by the commander-in-chief of his guard, the  Brahmin  general  Pusyamitra Sunga, who then took over the throne and established theSunga dynasty. Buddhist records such as the  Asokavadana  write that the assassination of Brhadrata and the rise of the Sunga empire led to a wave of persecution for  Buddhists,  and a resurgence of  Hinduism. According to  Sir John Marshall,  Pusyamitra may have been the main author of the persecutions, although later Sunga kings seem to have been more supportive of Buddhism. Other historians, such as  Etienne Lamotte and  Romila Thapar, among others, have argued that archaeological evidence in favor of the allegations of persecution of Buddhists are lacking, and that the extent and magnitude of the atrocities have been exaggerated. Establishment of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE) The fall of the Mauryas left the  Khyber Pass  unguarded, and a wave of foreign invasion followed. The  Greco-Bactrian  king,  Demetrius, capitalized on the break-up, and he conquered southern Afghanistan and Pakistan around 180 BC, forming the  Indo-Greek Kingdom. The Indo-Greeks would maintain holdings on the trans-Indus region, and make forays into central India, for about a century. Under them, Buddhism flourished, and one of their kings  Menander  became a famous figure of Buddhism, he was to establish a new capital of Sagala, the modern city of  Sialkot. However, the extent of their domains and the lengths of their rule are subject to much debate. Numismatic evidence indicates that they retained holdings in the subcontinent right up to the birth of Christ. Although the extent of their successes against indigenous powers such as the  Sungas,  Satavahanas, and  Kalingas  are unclear, what is clear is that Scythian tribes, renamed  Indo-Scythians, brought about the demise of the Indo-Greeks from around 70 BCE and retained lands in the trans-Indus, the region of  Mathura, and Gujarat. Reasons The decline of the Maurya Dynasty was rather rapid after the death of Ashoka/Asoka. One obvious reason for it was the succession of weak kings. Another immediate cause was the partition of the Empire into two. Had not the partition taken place, the Greek invasions could have been held back giving a chance to the Mauryas to re-establish some degree of their previous power. Regarding the decline much has been written. Haraprasad Sastri contends that the revolt by Pushyamitra was the result of brahminical reaction against the pro-Buddhist policies of Ashoka and pro-Jaina policies of his successors. Basing themselves on this thesis, some maintain the view that brahminical reaction was responsible for the decline because of the following reasons. 1. Prohibition of the slaughter of animals displeased the Brahmins as animal sacrifices were esteemed by them. 2. The book Divyavadana refers to the persecution of Buddhists by Pushyamitra Sunga. 3. Asoka's claim that he exposed the Budheveas (brahmins) as false gods shows that Ashoka was not well disposed towards Brahmins. 4. The capture of power by Pushyamitra Sunga shows the triumph of Brahmins 5. All of these four points can be easily refuted. 6. Asoka's compassion towards animals was not an overnight decision. Repulsion of animal sacrifices grew over a long period of time. Even Brahmins gave it up. 7. The book Divyavadana cannot be relied upon since it was during the time of Pushyamitra Sunga that the Sanchi and Barhut stupas were completed. The impression of the persecution of Buddhism was probably created by Menander's invasion, since he was a Buddhist. 8. The word ‘budheva' is misinterpreted because this word is to be taken in the context of some other phrase. Viewed like this, the word has nothing to do with brahminism. 9. The victory of Pushyamitra Sunga clearly shows that the last of the Mauryas was an incompetent ruler since he was overthrown in the very presence of his army, and this had nothing to do with brahminical reaction against Asoka's patronage of Buddhism. Moreover, the very fact that a Brahmin was the commander in chief of the Mauryan ruler proves that the Mauryas and the Brahmins were on good terms. After all, the distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism in India was purely sectarian and never more than the difference between saivism and vaishnavism. The exclusiveness of religious doctrines is a Semitic conception, which was unknown to India for a long time. Buddha himself was looked upon in his lifetime and afterwards as a Hindu saint and avatar and his followers were but another sect in the great Aryan tradition. Ashoka was a Buddhist in the same way as Harsha was a Budhist, or Kumarapala was a Jain. But in the view of the people of the day he was a Hindu monarch following one of the recognized sects. His own inscriptions bear ample withness to the fact. While his doctrines follow the middle path, his gifts are to the brahmibns, sramansa (Buddhist priests) and others equally. His own name of adoption is Devanam Priya, the beloved of the gods. Which gods? Surely the gods of the Aryan religion. Buddhism had no gods of its own. The idea that Ashoka was a kind of Buddhist Constantine declearing himself against paganism is a complete misreading of India conditions. Asoka was a kind or Buddhist Constantine declearing himself against paganism is a complete misreading of India conditions. Asoka was essentially a Hindu, as indeed was the founder of the sect to which he belonged. Raychaudhury too rebuts the arguments of Sastri. The empire had shrunk considerably and there was no revolution. Killing the Mauryan King while he was reviewing the army points to a palace coup detat not a revolution. The organization were ready to accept any one who could promise a more efficient organization. Also if Pushyamitra was really a representative of brahminical reaction he neighbouting kings would have definitely given him assistance. The argument that the empire became effete because of Asokan policies is also very thin. All the evidence suggests that Asoka was a stern monarch although his reign witnessed only a single campaign. He was shrewd enough in retaining Kalinga although he expressed his remorse. Well he was wordly-wise to enslave and-and-half lakh sudras of Kalinga and bring them to the Magadha region to cut forests and cultivate land. More than this his tours of the empire were not only meant for the sake of piety but also for keeping an eye on the centrifugal tendencies of the empire. Which addressing the tribal people Asoka expressed his willingness to for given. More draconian was Ashoka's message to the forest tribes who were warned of the power which he possessed. This view of Raychoudhury on the pacifism of the State cannot be substantiated. Apart from these two major writers there is a third view as expressed by kosambi. He based his arguments that unnecessary measures were taken up to increase tax and the punch-marked coins of the period show evidence of debasement. This contention too cannot be up held. It is quite possible that debased coins began to circulate during the period of the later Mauryas. On the other hand the debasement may also indicate that there was an increased demand for silver in relation to goods leading to the silver content of the coins being reduced. More important point is the fact that the material remains of the post-Asokan era do not suggest any pressure on the economy. Instead the economy prospered as shown by archaeological evidence at Hastinapura and Sisupalqarh. The reign of Asoka was an asset to the economy. The unification of the country under single efficient administration the organization and increase in communications meant the development of trade as well as an opening of many new commercial interest. In the post – Asokan period surplus wealth was used by the rising commercial classes to decorate religious buildings. The sculpture at Barhut and Sanchi and the Deccan caves was the contribution of this new bourgeoisie. Still another view regarding of the decline of Mauryas was that the coup of Pushyamitra was a peoples' revolt against Mauryans oppression and a rejection of the Maurya adoption of foreign ideas, as far interest in Mauryan Art. This argument is based on the view that Sunga art (Sculpture at Barhut and Sanchi) is more earthy and in the folk tradition that Maruyan art. This is more stretching the argument too far. The character of Sunga art changed because it served a different purpose and its donors belonged to different social classes. Also, Sunga art conformed more to the folk traditions because Buddhism itself had incorporated large elements of popular cults and because the donors of this art, many of whom may have been artisans, were culturally more in the mainstream of folk tradition. One more reasoning to support the popular revolt theory is based on Asoka's ban on the samajas. Asoka did ban festive meetings and discouraged eating of meat. These too might have entagonised the population but it is doubtful whether these prohibitions were strictly enforced. The above argument (people's revolt) also means that Asoka's policy was continued by his successors also, an assumption not confirmed by historical data. Further more, it is unlikely that there was sufficient national consciousness among the varied people of the Mauryan empire. It is also argued by these theorists that Asokan policy in all its details was continued by the later Mauryas, which is not a historical fact. Still another argument that is advanced in favour of the idea of revolt against the Mauryas is that the land tax under the Mauryas was one-quarter, which was very burden some to the cultivator. But historical evidence shows something else. The land tax varied from region to region according to the fertility of the soil and the availability of water. The figure of one quarter stated by Magasthenes probably referred only to the fertile and well-watered regions around Pataliputra. Thus the decline of the Mauryan empire cannot be satisfactorily explained by referring to Military inactivity, Brahmin resentment, popular uprising or economic pressure. The causes of the decline were more fundamental. The organization of administration and the concept of the State were such that they could be sustained by only by kings of considerably personal ability. After the death of Asoka there was definitely a weakening at the center particularly after the division of the empire, which inevitably led to the breaking of provinces from the Mauryan rule. Also, it should be borne in mind that all the officials owed their loyalty to the king and not to the State. This meant that a change of king could result in change of officials leading to the demoralization of the officers. Mauryas had no system of ensuring the continuation of well-planned bureaucracy. The next important weakness of the Mauryan Empire was its extreme centralization and the virtual monopoly of all powers by the king. There was a total absence of any advisory institution representing public opinion. That is why the Mauryas depended greatly on the espionage system. Added to this lack of representative institutions there was no distinction between the executive and the judiciary of the government. An incapable king may use the officers either for purposes of oppression or fail to use it for good purpose. And as the successors of Asoka happened to be weak, the empire inevitably declined. Added to these two factors, there is no conception of national unity of political consciousness. It is clear from the fact that even the resistance against the greeks as the hated miecchas was not an organized one. The only resistance was that of the local rulers who were afraid of losing their newly acquired territory. It is significant that when Porus was fighting Alexander, or when Subhagasena was paying tribute to Antiochus, they were doing so as isolated rulers in the northwest of India. They had no support from Pataliputra, nor are they even mentioned in any Indian sources as offering resistance to the hated Yavanas. Even the heroic Porus, who, enemy though he was, won the admiration of the Greeks, is left unrecorded in Indian sources. Another associated point of great importance is the fact that the Mauryan Empire which was highly centralized and autocratic was the first and last one of its kind. If the Mauryan Empire did not survive for long, it could be because of the failure of the successors of Asoka to hold on to the principles that could make success of such an empire. Further, the Mauryan empire and the philosophy of the empire was not in tune with the spirit of the time because Aryanism and brahminism was very much there. According to the Brahmin or Aryan philosophy, the king was only an upholder of dharma, but never the crucial or architecture factor influencing the whole of life. In other words, the sentiment of the people towards the political factor, that is the State was never established in India. Such being the reality, when the successors of Asoka failed to make use of the institution and the thinking that was needed to make a success of a centralized political authority. The Mauryan Empire declined without anyone's regret. Other factors of importance that contributed to the decline and lack of national unity were the ownership of land and inequality of economic levels. Land could frequently change hands. Fertility wise the region of the Ganges was more prosperous than northern Deccan. Mauryan administration was not fully tuned to meet the existing disparities in economic activity. Had the southern region been more developed, the empire could have witnessed economic homogeneity. Also the people of the sub-continent were not of uniform cultural level. The sophisticated cities and the trade centers were a great contrast to the isolated village communities. All these differences naturally led to the economic and political structures being different from region to region. It is also a fact that even the languages spoken were varied. The history of a